Dipodomys microps - (Merriam, 1904)
Chisel-toothed Kangaroo Rat
Other English Common Names: chisel-toothed kangaroo rat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Dipodomys microps (Merriam, 1904) (TSN 180242)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102909
Element Code: AMAFD03020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Heteromyidae Dipodomys
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Dipodomys microps
Taxonomic Comments: See Patton (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) for a lst of currently recognized subspecies, based on Williams et al. (1993).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 08Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S3), California (SNR), Idaho (S4), Navajo Nation (S1), Nevada (S5), Oregon (S4?), Utah (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Nearly the entire Great Basin from southwestern Idaho (Raft River Valley, Cassia County; Elmore Desert, Elmore County) and southeastern Oregon through eastern California, Nevada, and western Utah to southern California and northern Arizona; west to the Sierra Nevada, east to the Wasatch Mountains. Generally at moderate elevations but recorded up to 3200 m in Inyo County, California. Discontinuous relict distribution in San Bernardino County, California. Limits of subspecies PREBLEI and IDAHOENSIS in Oregon, CELSUS and LEUCOTIS in Arizona, and CELSUS and OCCIDENTALIS in Nevada are uncertain (Hoffmeister 1986, Hayssen 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Nearly the entire Great Basin from southwestern Idaho (Raft River Valley, Cassia County; Elmore Desert, Elmore County) and southeastern Oregon through eastern California, Nevada, and western Utah to southern California and northern Arizona; west to the Sierra Nevada, east to the Wasatch Mountains. Generally at moderate elevations but recorded up to 3200 m in Inyo County, California. Discontinuous relict distribution in San Bernardino County, California. Limits of subspecies PREBLEI and IDAHOENSIS in Oregon, CELSUS and LEUCOTIS in Arizona, and CELSUS and OCCIDENTALIS in Nevada are uncertain (Hoffmeister 1986, Hayssen 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, ID, NN, NV, OR, UT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015)
ID Cassia (16031), Elmore (16039)*, Owyhee (16073), Twin Falls (16083)*
UT Box Elder (49003), Millard (49027), Tooele (49045), Washington (49053)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Kanab (15010003)+*, Grand Wash (15010006)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+*, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+*, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
16 Hamlin-Snake Valleys (16020301)+, Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Northern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020308)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*, Lower Beaver (16030008)+
17 Raft (17040210)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+*, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: In Inyo County, California, mating usually occurs from February to mid-March, with births from March to mid-April or sometimes later. Pregnant females occur from April to June in Nevada. Gestation lasts 30-34 days. Single litter of 1-4 (most often 2), though under exceptionally good conditions a few may produce 2 litters/year. Juveniles typically do not mature sexually in season of birth in southeastern California (Kenagy and Bartholomew 1985).
Ecology Comments: Basically solitary. Reported average home range size varies from less than 1 ha to about 5 ha (see Hayssen 1991). Reported population density: up to about 7/ha in Nevada, to 34/ha in Utah. Most abundant in spring and early summer. A major primary consumer and prey item for carnivores. Life span averages just over a year.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Shrubland/chaparral
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Desert valleys dominated by saltbush/shadscale (ATRIPLEX CONFERTIFOLIA) throughout most of range; blackbush (COLEOGYNE RAMOSISSIMA) zone along the southern edge of its range; in southern Nevada, most abundant in COLEOGYNE and GRAYIA/LYCIUM communities; also occurs in other types of shrubby communites. Occurs on rocky slopes in some areas. Rarely has been captured on sand dunes. See Hayssen (1991) for further habitat information. Nests are in underground burrows that typically open near the base of shrubs.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore
Food Comments: Diet generally is dominated by leaves (especially of saltbush, from which hypersaline outer layers are removed) in the northern and central parts of the range, by seeds in the south. Sometimes eats insects and fungi. Climbs saltbush plants to forage for leaves. Caches leaves and/or seeds in burrow.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year. Not known to aestivate or hibernate. Nocturnal with limited activity at dawn and dusk.
Length: 30 centimeters
Weight: 75 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Kangaroo Rats and Allies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Sites separated by 200 to 1000 meters should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers, arbitrarily set at greater than 50 meters; also major roads, greater than 30 meters clearance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges generally are small or very small, and scant dispersal data suggest that dispersal usually may be less than a few hundred meters. For example, in southeastern Arizona, lifetime dispersal distance for Dipodomys merriami ranged from 0-265 m; nightly movements were up to about 150 m from home range center (Jones 1989). On the other hand, these rodents clearly are capabale of making long moves, and itt seems unlikely that observations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent distinct occurrences.

Home range varies from 0.06 to 3.09 hectares in Perognathus (O'Farrell et al. 1975, Iverson 1967, Jorgensen and Hayward 1965, O'Farrell 1978, Chew and Butterworth 1964, Maza et al. 1973); 0.39 to 4.4 hectares in Microdipodops (O'Farrell and Blaustein 1974, Ghiselin 1970); 0.04 to 5.2 hectares in DIPODOMYS (MacMillen 1964, Fitch 1948, Maza et al. 1973, Bleich 1977, O'Farrell 1978, Blair 1943, Bartholomew and Caswell 1951, Thomas 1975, Bradford 1976); and 0.1 to 2.4 hectares in Chaetodipus (Maza et al. 1973, Jorgensen and Hayward 1965, Reynolds and Haskell 1949, O'Farrell 1978, MacMillen 1964).

Major roads can be significant barriers to movement of small mammals (Oxley et al. 1974, Wilkins 1982, Garland and Bradley 1984).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .06 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a home range of 0.33 hectares, the smaller end of the average scale for most heteromyids (see Separation Justification). Note that some species have smaller known home ranges: e.g. 0.04 to 0.16 hectares in DIPODOMYS STEPHENSI (Bleich 1977), and 0.12 to 0.24 hectares in CHAETODIPUS BAILEYI and 0.1 to 0.2 hectares in C. PENICILLATUS (Reynolds and Haskell 1949).
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Jan1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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