Zapus princeps - J.A. Allen, 1893
Western Jumping Mouse
Other English Common Names: western jumping mouse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Zapus princeps J. A. Allen, 1893 (TSN 180387)
French Common Names: souris sauteuse de l'Ouest
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102879
Element Code: AMAFH01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Dipodidae Zapus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Zapus princeps
Taxonomic Comments: Previously, Zapus hudsonius luteus was included in Z. princeps; Hafner et al. (1981) showed that luteus represents Zapus hudsonius.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 15Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S3), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S4), Montana (S4), Nevada (S2), New Mexico (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Oregon (S4), South Dakota (SH), Utah (S3S4), Washington (S4S5), Wyoming (S3S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Manitoba (S3), Saskatchewan (S4S5), Yukon Territory (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western North America. Southern Yukon to eastern North Dakota and northeastern South Dakota, south to east-central California, central Nevada, Utah, and north-central New Mexico (Hart et al. 2004).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western North America. Southern Yukon to eastern North Dakota and northeastern South Dakota, south to east-central California, central Nevada, Utah, and north-central New Mexico (Hart et al. 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NM, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NV Carson City (32510), Douglas (32005), Elko (32007), Eureka (32011), Humboldt (32013), Lander (32015), Nye (32023), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)*
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+*, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+
16 Central Bear (16010102)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+, South Fork Humboldt (16040103)+, Pine (16040104)+*, Reese (16040107)+, Little Humboldt (16040109)+, Lower Quinn (16040202)+, Thousand-Virgin (16040205)+, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Northern Big Smoky Valley (16060004)+, Diamond-Monitor Valleys (16060005)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+*, Bruneau (17050102)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Owyhee (17050105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds soon after females emerge from hibernation. Gestation lasts 18 days. Most young are born late June-early July. Apparently only 1 litter/year. Litter size estimated at 2-7 (average 5). Some females bear 1st litter at 1 year (Falk and Millar 1987).
Ecology Comments: Primarily solitary. Home range in Utah averaged 0.2-0.6 ha in different areas in different years (Cranford 1983). Adult density was 8-32/ha in different areas.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Mountain meadows, marshes, along banks of streams and ponds, in dense cover of tall grasses and herbs. Nests in burrow in well-drained mound or elevated bank (Jones et al. 1983) or on surface among vegetation.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: In spring, feeds on insects and other invertebrates. By mid-summer, diet may shift to mostly grass seeds and small fruits.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Adults may enter hibernation September-October. Throughout winter, periods of hibernation alternate with arousal from torpor. In eastern Wyoming, emerges from hibernation mid-May to mid-June; may not emerge until late June or July at high elevations in Utah.
Length: 26 centimeters
Weight: 38 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Jumping Mice

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers; arbitrarily set at those greater than 50 meters wide at low water. Also four-lane or divided highways.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Dispersal behavior is unknown, but it is likely that some individuals periodically move or disperse at least several hundred meters from one location to another. The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat attempts to reflect the small home ranges of these mammals, their obvious ability to make long movements, their secretive habits and consequent apparent absence in areas where they do in fact occur, and the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Unsuitable habitat is difficult to define but likely includes most upland ridges and steep topography.

Roads, especially wide highways, are major barriers to dispersal in small rodents (Oxley et al. 1974).

Home ranges small, about 0.15 to 1.0 hectares in ZAPUS HUDSONIUS (Nowak 1991), and averaging 0.17 to 0.3 hectares in male Z. princeps (Meyers 1969, Stinson 1977). In Nova Scotia, mean distance between two farthest captures of Napaeozapus insignis, June-August, was 447 m in males, 175 m in females (Ovaska and Herman 1988).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .06 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a typical home range of about 0.3 hectares (see Separation Justification).
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Feb2005
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Armstrong, D.M. 1972. Distribution of Mammals in Colorado. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence. 415 pp.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  • Beck, W.H. 1958. A guide to Saskatchewan mammals. Special Publication No. 1. Saskatchewan Natural History Society, Regina, Saskatchewan.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Cranford, J. A. 1983. Ecological strategies of a small hibernator, the western jumping mouse ZAPUS PRINCEPS. Can. J. Zool. 61:232-240.

  • Falk, J. W., and J. S. Millar. 1987. Reproduction by female ZAPUS PRICEPS in relation to age, size, and body fat.Can. J. Zool. 65:568-571.

  • Fitzgerald, J. P. et al. 1992. Mammals of Colorado. Review manuscript.

  • Hafner, D. J., K. E. Petersen, and T. L. Yates. 1981. Evolutionary relationships of jumping mice (genus Zapus) of the southwestern United States. Journal of Mammalogy 62:501-512.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hart, E. B., M. C. Belt, E. Jordan, and M. W. Gonzalez. 2004. Zapus princeps. Mammalian Species 749:1-7.

  • Hoffmeister, D. F. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press and Arizona Game and Fish Department. 602 pp.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., D. M. Armstrong, R. S. Hoffmann, and C. Jones. 1983. Mammals of the Northern Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Keinath, D.A. 2005. Supplementary mammal inventory of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Unpublished report prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Data Base for USDI National Park Service Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Program Bozeman, Montana.

  • Long, C.A. 1965. The mammals of Wyoming. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 14: 493-758.

  • Meyers, L. G. 1969. Home range and longevity in ZAPUS PRINCEPS in Colorado. American Midland Naturalist 82:628-629.

  • Nagorsen, D.W. 2005. Rodents and lagomorphs of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. Victoria. 410 pp.

  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth edition. Vols. I and II. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore. 1629 pp.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Preble, E. A. 1899. Revision of the jumping mice of the genus Zapus. North American Fauna 15:1-43.

  • Rand, A.L. 1945. Mammal investigations on the Canol Road, Yukon and Northwest Territories, 1944. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 99. Ottawa, Ontario. 52 pages.

  • Slough, B. G., and T. S. Jung. 2007. Diversity and distribution of the terrestrial mammals of the Yukon Territory: a review. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 121(2): 119-127.

  • Slough, B.G. 1999. Status recommendation for Yukon mammals and amphibians. IN Hoefs, M. (ed.) Status assessment and proposed "at risk" designations of Yukon's vertebrate species - a technical analysis. Yukon Fish and Wildlife Branch unpubl. report.

  • Stinson, N., Jr. 1977. Home range of the western jumping mouse, ZAPUS PRINCEPS, in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Great Basin Naturalist 37:87-90.

  • Tlen, D.L. 1993. Kluane Southern Tutchone glossary: english to Southern Tutchone. First edition. The Northern Research Institute, Whitehorse, Yukon. 38 pp.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Youngman, P. M. 1975. Mammals of the Yukon Territory. Publications in Zoology, No. 10., National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. 192 pp.

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