Lepomis gulosus - (Cuvier, 1829)
Warmouth
Synonym(s): Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829) (TSN 168139)
French Common Names: crapet sac-à-lait
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102803
Element Code: AFCQB11040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Sunfishes and Freshwater Basses
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Centrarchidae Lepomis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lepomis gulosus
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly in genus Chaenobryttus. Reported to hybridize with Lepomis cyanellus, and L. macrochirus. Though the gender of the name Lepomis is feminine (see Bailey and Robins, 1988, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 45(2):100), the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) retained the masculine ending for gulosus and other species, pending a vote by the ICZN on a petition (by Etnier and Warren) to treat Lepomis as masculine for nomenclatural purposes.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19May2015
Global Status Last Changed: 23Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (31Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S5), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4S5), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S4S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S3?), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nevada (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (S5), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S3), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01May2015)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This species of sunfish has a very small distribution in Canada, occurring only within the Lake Erie drainage. It exists at few locations and is subjected to continuing decline in habitat quality due to a complexity of ecosystem modifications to its preferred vegetated habitat, primarily from the establishment of dense beds of non-native aquatic plants and eutrophication resulting from agricultural runoff.

Status history: Designated Special Concern in April 1994. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2001 and in May 2005. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2015.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native to Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins from western Pennsylvania to Minnesota, south to the Gulf Coast; Atlantic and Gulf drainages from Rappahannock River, Virginia, to Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991). Known from a couple locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada (Crossman et al. 1996). Introduced widely in western U.S., including lower Colorado River drainage, and in portions of Atlantic slope.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native to Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins from western Pennsylvania to Minnesota, south to the Gulf Coast; Atlantic and Gulf drainages from Rappahannock River, Virginia, to Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991). Known from a couple locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada (Crossman et al. 1996). Introduced widely in western U.S., including lower Colorado River drainage, and in portions of Atlantic slope.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FL, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OH, OK, ORexotic, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WAexotic, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MN Houston (27055), Itasca (27061), Wabasha (27157), Winona (27169)
PA Adams (42001)*, Allegheny (42003)*, Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Greene (42059)*, Mercer (42085)
WV Mason (54053), Monongalia (54061), Pleasants (54073), Tyler (54095), Wood (54107)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Monocacy (02070009)+*, Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Deep (03030003), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), South Yadkin (03040102), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Upper Catawba (03050101), South Fork Catawba (03050102), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Upper Broad (03050105), Lower Broad (03050106), Tyger (03050107), Enoree (03050108), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Altamaha (03070106), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Charlotte Harbor (03100103), Sarasota Bay (03100201), Manatee (03100202), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Oostanaula (03150103), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Bad-Montreal (04010302), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), St. Joseph (04100003), Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+
05 French (05010004)+, Upper Monongahela (05020003)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112)*, Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Lower White (05120202), Driftwood (05120204), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Stones (05130203), Harpeth (05130204), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005)*, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), Lower Cedar (07080206), Middle Iowa (07080208)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Sugar (07090004), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), The Sny (07110004), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Upper Sangamon (07130006), Lower Illinois (07130011), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Forked Deer (08010206), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211)*, Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
09 Big Fork (09030006)+
10 West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102)*, Upper Chariton (10280201)*, Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Pomme De Terre (10290107), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Elk (11070208), Lower Neosho (11070209), Middle Canadian-Spring (11090106), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), Wichita (11130206), Northern Beaver (11130208), Little Wichita (11130209), Lake Texoma (11130210), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), Lower Trinity (12030203), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102), Paint (12060103), Lower Clear Fork Brazos (12060104), Hubbard (12060105), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Bosque (12060203), North Bosque (12060204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Yegua (12070102), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Little (12070204), San Gabriel (12070205), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Beals (12080007), Upper Colorado (12080008), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), South Concho (12090102), North Concho (12090104), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Jim Ned (12090108), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), North Llano (12090202), South Llano (12090203), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Lavaca (12100101), Navidad (12100102), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), San Marcos (12100203), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Nueces headwaters (12110101), West Nueces (12110102), Upper Nueces (12110103), Turkey (12110104), Middle Nueces (12110105), Upper Frio (12110106), Hondo (12110107), Lower Frio (12110108), San Miguel (12110109), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), San Fernando (12110204), Baffin Bay (12110205), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Cibolo-Red Light (13040201), Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Big Bend (13040205), Amistad Reservoir (13040212), Upper Devils (13040301), Lower Devils (13040302), Dry Devils (13040303), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001), Lower Rio Grande (13090002)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Eggs hatch in 34.5 hours at 25-26 C. Sexually mature usually in 2nd or 3rd summer. Male guards and fans eggs. May spawn 2 or more times per season. See Moyle (1976), Becker (1983), and Sublette et al. (1990).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Ponds, lakes, swamps, and streams of low gradient with mud or debris over bottom; a pool species in streams where it often is near beds of vegetation or other cover; weedy turbid areas of rivers and backwaters. Tolerant of low oxygen levels of polluted waters. Common in lowlands, uncommon in uplands (Page and Burr 1991). Eggs are laid in a bowl-like nest made by male often in sand or rubble bottom with thin covering of silt or detritus near a rock, stump, clump of vegetation, or similar object, at depths of 15 cm to 1.5 m. Nests usually are separated from one another.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Eats small crustaceans, aquatic insect larvae, and (large individuals) crayfish and fishes (Moyle 1976).
Length: 28 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Sunfishes (Centrarchids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Although members of this group vary in size and probably in typical movement distances, it is likely that even the smallest centrarchids occasionally disperse as far as do large centrarchids. Hence a single separation distance is used for all members of the family. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Note that some species some species may at time be hard to detect. For example, nowhere is the Carolina pygmy sunfish known to be abundant. In addition, it is essentially an annual species, with adults dying soon after spawning, at an age of 12-15 months. In addition, young are so small that, for a several months, documentation of the species' presence at a particular locality might be almost impossible, at least without preserving specimens. Therefore, negative data at a known locality should be carefully interpreted (P. Shute).
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Aug1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

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  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

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  • Crossman, E.J. J. Houston and R.R. Campbell. 1994. Status Report on the Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 16 pp.

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  • McGovern, S.P. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Warmouth (Chaenobryttus [=Lepomis] gulosus). Unpublished report prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 3 pp.

  • McInerny, M. C.  Warmouth, Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier). In:  Fishes of Minnesota.  J. T. Hatch, G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors.  In preparation.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

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  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

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  • Edwards, R. J. and S. Contreras-Balderas. 1991. Historical changes in the ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte), Texas and Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 36(2): 201-212.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

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