Falco peregrinus - Tunstall, 1771
Peregrine Falcon
Other English Common Names: peregrine falcon
Other Common Names: Falcão-Peregrino
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 (TSN 175604)
French Common Names: faucon pèlerin
Spanish Common Names: Halcón Peregrino
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102654
Element Code: ABNKD06070
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Raptors
Image 11120

© Jeff Nadler

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Falconiformes Falconidae Falco
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Falco peregrinus
Taxonomic Comments: F. peregrinoides, a North African and Asiatic desert-adapted taxon, is considered a race of the cosmopolitan peregrine by some taxonomists. South American F. kreyenborgi is a color morph of F. peregrinus (AOU 1983, McNutt 1984). See Olsen et al. (1989) for a study of relationships within the genus Falco based on electrophoretic patterns of feather proteins.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 28Nov2000
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread, with increasing populations in many areas. Since the early 1970s, captive breeding and reintroduction programs have had some success in North America, and reproductive failure due to pesticide contamination has been reduced so that it is no longer a serious threat in most areas. Populations in North America have recovered in some areas and are increasing in most other areas. Populations increasing in northern Eurasia.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4B,N4N (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4B,N2N,N3N4M (15Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SHB,S3N), Alaska (S3B,S3N), Arizona (S4), Arkansas (S1N), California (SNR), Colorado (S2B), Connecticut (S1B), Delaware (S1B,S1N), District of Columbia (S1B,S1N), Florida (S2), Georgia (S1), Idaho (S2B), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S2B), Iowa (S1B), Kansas (S1B,S3N), Kentucky (S1B), Louisiana (S3N), Maine (S1S2N,S2B), Maryland (S2B,S3N), Massachusetts (S2B,S3N), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S3B), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (S1), Montana (S3), Navajo Nation (S3S4), Nebraska (S1), Nevada (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S1B,S1N), New Mexico (S2B,S3N), New York (S3B), North Carolina (S1B,S2N), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (SU), Oregon (S3), Pennsylvania (S1B,S1N), Rhode Island (S1B), South Carolina (SHB,SNRN), South Dakota (SXB), Tennessee (S1B), Texas (S3), Utah (S3B), Vermont (S3B), Virginia (S1B,S2N), Washington (S2B,S3N), West Virginia (S1B,S2N), Wisconsin (S1S2B), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S2S3B), British Columbia (S3B), Labrador (SNR), Manitoba (S1B), New Brunswick (S1B,S3M), Newfoundland Island (SNR), Northwest Territories (S3S4B), Nova Scotia (S1B), Nunavut (S4B,S4M), Ontario (S3B), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S3S4), Saskatchewan (S1B), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS:LE
Comments on USESA: Eurasian subspecies peregrinus is listed by USFWS as Endangered. Subspecies tundrius was delisted by USFWS in 1994. USFWS proposed removing all Endangered Species Act protections from all subspecies (including removing designation of endangered due to similarity of appearance for falcons with the 48 conterminous U.S.) (Federal Register 63:45446-45463, 26 August 1998). Subspecies anatum was formally removed from the U. S. federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife, along with the the 'similarity of appearance' provision for free flying Peregrine Falcons in the conterminous U.S. (Federal Register, 25 August 1999).
Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:SC,NAR
Comments on COSEWIC: Subspecies pealei is designation Special Concern and subspecies anatum/tundrius are designated Not at Risk.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix I

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Nearly cosmopolitan; breeds on every continent except Antarctica; absent from high mountains, desert regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia, and from most tropical forests; occasionally reaches Hawaii. In North America, much recovery of populations has occurred, but the large area extending from the western Cascades of Oregon and Washington to the eastern slope of the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming and Montana and north into the southern provinces of Canada still was largely unoccupied in the early 1990s (The Peregrine Fund 1992).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: See GABUNDCOM.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Rangewide estimates not available. Subspecies CALIDUS: breeding poulation across northern Eurasia has been estimated at 3652 territorial pairs (95% confidence interval 2282 to 5018 pairs) (Quinn and Kokorev 2000). North America: In the early 1990s, the North American population totaled several thousand breeding pairs, including about 700 known territorial pairs in the coterminous U.S. (estimated total about 890 pairs). Subspecies PEALEI: An estimated 600 breeding pairs are believed to occur in Alaska (Ambrose et al. 1988) and an additional 100 pairs in British Columbia (Munro 1988). Subspecies ANATUM: In 1998, there were at least 193 breeding pairs in the eastern United States, 32 in the midwest, 535 in the western region, and 269 in the Pacific coast region (USFWS 1999). In Alaska, there are a minimum of 301 breeding pairs (USFWS 1999). In Canada, 319 breeding pairs were located in 1995 (USFWS 1999). Mexico has not been surveyed adequately, but at least 70 nest sites were occupied there in the late 1980s and early 1990s (USFWS 1999). Subspecies TUNDRIUS: In Greenland, there were approximately 1000-2000 breeding pairs in the early 1990s (Mattox, in USFWS 1993). Alaskan nesting population was estimated at 200-250 pairs in the early 1990s. Additional pairs in the Northwest Territories and elsewhere bring the total up to probably several thousand breeding pairs.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include loss of wetland habitat of primary prey, poachers robbing nests, shooting by hunters, and food chain contamination from use of persistent pesticides. Pesticide-caused reproductive failure now apparently is rare or absent in northern populations, though organochlorine levels in the environment are still high in some areas (e.g., New Mexico, Hubbard and Schmitt 1988; see also Peakall 1990; see Banasch et al. 1992 for information on contaminants in prey in Panama, Venezuela, and Mexico). Court (1993) studied the eggs of F. p. anatum in Alberta, Canada between 1983 and 1992, and found that high DDE levels still occurred in some eggs, and that 28 percent of the eggs were still thinner than critical thicknesses considered essential for successful reproduction.

Also, eggshell thickness in New Jersey declined in the 1980s, suggesting that falcons continue to be exposed to environmental contaminants (Steidl et al. 1991). Reintroduced populations in some areas of the eastern U.S. (e.g., barrier islands of the mid-Atlantic states) may be threatened by increasing human disturbance and use of nesting habitat (Byrd and Johnston 1991).

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Populations in the Northern Hemisphere declined drastically from the 1940s to the 1970s due to DDT and its breakdown products, notably DDE, in the environment. During the 1930s and 1940s there were at least 200 breeding pairs in the eastern United States. By the mid-1960s these were all inactive (U.S. Fish and Wildlife 1993). Populations were reduced by an estimated 80-90% in the western U.S. by the mid-1970s; the decline in Alaska probably was no more than 50% (The Peregrine Fund 1992). Populations have been recovering, aided by reintroductions in some areas. In the early 1980s, continent-wide population was stable, but local increases and declines were continuing (see White et al. [1990] for 1980 status in specific areas). See also Cade et al. (1988) and Palmer (1988). Eastern U.S. population was about 210 active nests and 350 pairs in the 1930s and 1940s; population dropped to zero breeders by the mid-1960s, largely the result of eggshell thinning caused by pesticide and PCB poisoning. Populations increased after U.S. DDT ban and initiation of reintroduction efforts. Populations in Alaska, and the Yukon and Northwest Territories evidently have recovered. In interior Alaska, numbers increased about 3-fold from the mid-1970s to the early 1990s; pesticide levels have been decreasing and in the early 1990s were well below levels at which reproduction is impaired. Populations increased from 1985 to 1990 in the Yukon Territory, but full occupancy of the historic range had not yet occurred. Populations in the Mackenzie River valley increased from 1985 to 1990, but little is known of population trends in the boreal forest east of the Mackenzie valley (USFWS 1991). Subspecies TUNDRIUS: In the Northwest Territories, populations are stable or increasing in all surveyed areas (e.g., see Shank et al. 1993); some organochlorine contamination remains, but falcons are reproducing well. In Quebec, breeding performance and habitat occupancy have increased greatly since the 1970s. Overall, in Canada, populations are stable or increasing (Holroyd and Banasch 1995), and there is a continuing danger of organochlorine contamination (Bromley, 1992 COSEWIC report). In Greenland, habitat occupancy had increased to about 90% in 1990 (USFWS 1991). See USFWS (1993) for additional documentation of the recovery of this subspecies. In Alaska, the number of pairs of subspecies ANATUM and TUNDRIUS both have more than doubled in some areas, without the aid of releases (The Peregrine Fund 1992). Censuses indicate that subspecies TUNDRIUS throughout its range (USFWS 1994) and subspecies ANATUM in Alaska and the Yukon and Northwest Territories have recovered. A significant increase was recorded in migration counts in northeastern North America, 1972-1987 (Titus and Fuller 1990). With the exception of the central and western prairie provinces, reported to have recovered throughout much of Canada (The Peregrine Fund 1992). Stable or increasing in northern and western Canada; numbers remain low in southern Canada (Murphy 1990); subspecies PEALEI (breeds along British Columbia and Alaska coasts) and subspecies TUNDRIUS (breeds in arctic, winters in Latin America) seem secure (Peakall 1990). The Peregrine Fund (1992) recommended that the peregrine, including both subspecies in Alaska be delisted in all western states except Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming (where a change to Threatened status was recommended). Subspecies CALIDUS: Declined in northern Eurasia during period of intensive organochlorine pesticide use, but now increasing (Quinn and Kokorev 2000).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Continue efforts to protect birds from environmental contaminants.

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Nearly cosmopolitan; breeds on every continent except Antarctica; absent from high mountains, desert regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia, and from most tropical forests; occasionally reaches Hawaii. In North America, much recovery of populations has occurred, but the large area extending from the western Cascades of Oregon and Washington to the eastern slope of the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming and Montana and north into the southern provinces of Canada still was largely unoccupied in the early 1990s (The Peregrine Fund 1992).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SDextirpated, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; TNC-Wings, 1999; WILDSPACETM 2002

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Cherokee (01019)*, DeKalb (01049)*, Madison (01089)*, Marshall (01095)*
AZ Apache (04001), Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), Graham (04009), Greenlee (04011), La Paz (04012), Maricopa (04013), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021), Santa Cruz (04023), Yavapai (04025)
CA Alameda (06001), Butte (06007), Calaveras (06009), Contra Costa (06013), El Dorado (06017), Humboldt (06023), Los Angeles (06037), Marin (06041), Mendocino (06045), Monterey (06053), Napa (06055), Orange (06059), Sacramento (06067), San Benito (06069), San Diego (06073), San Francisco (06075), San Mateo (06081), Santa Barbara (06083), Santa Clara (06085), Santa Cruz (06087), Shasta (06089), Siskiyou (06093), Solano (06095), Tehama (06103), Tuolumne (06109)
CO Archuleta (08007), Boulder (08013), Chaffee (08015), Conejos (08021), Douglas (08035), Eagle (08037), El Paso (08041), Fremont (08043), Garfield (08045), Gunnison (08051), Hinsdale (08053), Huerfano (08055), Jackson (08057), Jefferson (08059), La Plata (08067), Las Animas (08071), Mesa (08077), Mineral (08079), Montezuma (08083), Montrose (08085), Ouray (08091), Park (08093), Routt (08107), Saguache (08109), San Miguel (08113), Summit (08117), Teller (08119)
CT Fairfield (09001), Hartford (09003), Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009), New London (09011)
DE New Castle (10003)
FL Bay (12005), Citrus (12017), Collier (12021), Duval (12031), Franklin (12037), Glades (12043), Gulf (12045), Martin (12085), Miami-Dade (12086), Monroe (12087), Nassau (12089), Palm Beach (12099), St. Lucie (12111)
GA Dade (13083)*, Fulton (13121), Walker (13295)*
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007)*, Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031)*, Clark (16033), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041)*, Fremont (16043), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055)*, Lemhi (16059), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Valley (16085)*
IL Carroll (17015), Cook (17031), DuPage (17043)*, Jersey (17083), Kane (17089), Lake (17097), Madison (17119), Peoria (17143), Sangamon (17167)*, Tazewell (17179), Will (17197)
IN Allen (18003), Bartholomew (18005), Dearborn (18029), Floyd (18043), Gibson (18051), Harrison (18061), Howard (18067), Jasper (18073), Jefferson (18077), Kosciusko (18085)*, La Porte (18091), Lake (18089), Marion (18097), Noble (18113)*, Pike (18125), Porter (18127), St. Joseph (18141), Switzerland (18155), Tippecanoe (18157), Vanderburgh (18163), Vigo (18167)
KS Barton (20009), Morton (20129)*, Shawnee (20177)
KY Boone (21015), Campbell (21037), Carroll (21041), Greenup (21089), Harlan (21095), Jefferson (21111), Kenton (21117), Mason (21161), Meade (21163), Trimble (21223)
LA Lafourche (22057), Plaquemines (22075), Terrebonne (22109)
MA Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005), Essex (25009), Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Suffolk (25025), Worcester (25027)
MD Anne Arundel (24003), Baltimore (city) (24510), Baltimore County (24005), Calvert (24009), Dorchester (24019), Somerset (24039)
MI Alger (26003), Bay (26017), Calhoun (26025), Chippewa (26033), Delta (26041)*, Genesee (26049), Houghton (26061), Ingham (26065), Jackson (26075), Kalamazoo (26077), Kent (26081), Keweenaw (26083), Leelanau (26089)*, Mackinac (26097), Macomb (26099), Marquette (26103), Midland (26111), Monroe (26115), Muskegon (26121), Oakland (26125), Ontonagon (26131), Ottawa (26139), Saginaw (26145)*, St. Clair (26147), Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MN Anoka (27003), Benton (27009), Blue Earth (27013), Chisago (27025)*, Cook (27031), Dakota (27037), Goodhue (27049), Hennepin (27053), Houston (27055), Itasca (27061), Lake (27075), Nicollet (27103), Olmsted (27109), Pine (27115)*, Ramsey (27123), Sherburne (27141), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169), Wright (27171)
MO Franklin (29071), Jackson (29095), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510)
MS Adams (28001), Hancock (28045), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Lafayette (28071), Madison (28089), Noxubee (28103), Oktibbeha (28105), Panola (28107), Quitman (28119), Tallahatchie (28135), Warren (28149)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Big Horn (30003), Broadwater (30007), Carbon (30009), Cascade (30013), Deer Lodge (30023), Flathead (30029), Gallatin (30031), Glacier (30035), Granite (30039), Jefferson (30043), Lake (30047), Lewis and Clark (30049), Lincoln (30053), Madison (30057), Meagher (30059), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063), Park (30067), Pondera (30073), Powell (30077), Prairie (30079), Ravalli (30081), Sanders (30089), Silver Bow (30093), Stillwater (30095), Sweet Grass (30097), Teton (30099), Toole (30101), Yellowstone (30111)
NC Alleghany (37005)*, Avery (37011), Brunswick (37019), Buncombe (37021), Burke (37023), Carteret (37031), Dare (37055), Haywood (37087), Henderson (37089), Hyde (37095)*, Jackson (37099), Macon (37113), Madison (37115), McDowell (37111), Mecklenburg (37119), Rutherford (37161), Stokes (37169)*, Surry (37171), Swain (37173), Transylvania (37175), Wilkes (37193)*, Yancey (37199)
ND Cass (38017), Dunn (38025)
NE Banner (31007)*, Box Butte (31013), Brown (31017), Buffalo (31019), Cass (31025), Cherry (31031), Clay (31035), Custer (31041)*, Dawes (31045), Douglas (31055), Frontier (31063), Garden (31069), Garfield (31071), Hall (31079), Hamilton (31081)*, Holt (31089), Keith (31101), Keya Paha (31103), Lancaster (31109), Lincoln (31111), Loup (31115), Madison (31119), Merrick (31121), Nance (31125), Nemaha (31127), Nuckolls (31129)*, Otoe (31131), Pawnee (31133), Polk (31143), Richardson (31147), Rock (31149), Sarpy (31153), Saunders (31155), Seward (31159), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165)
NH Carroll (33003), Cheshire (33005), Coos (33007), Grafton (33009), Hillsborough (33011), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003), Burlington (34005), Camden (34007), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011), Essex (34013), Gloucester (34015), Hudson (34017), Mercer (34021), Middlesex (34023), Ocean (34029), Passaic (34031), Salem (34033), Somerset (34035), Union (34039)
NM Bernalillo (35001), Cibola (35006), Dona Ana (35013), Los Alamos (35028), Mckinley (35031), Otero (35035), Rio Arriba (35039), San Juan (35045), San Miguel (35047)*, Sandoval (35043), Sierra (35051), Socorro (35053), Taos (35055)
NV Clark (32003), Douglas (32005), Elko (32007), Esmeralda (32009), Lincoln (32017), Mineral (32021)*, Nye (32023)
NY Albany (36001), Bronx (36005), Broome (36007), Clinton (36019), Dutchess (36027), Erie (36029), Essex (36031), Franklin (36033), Greene (36039), Hamilton (36041)*, Herkimer (36043)*, Jefferson (36045), Kings (36047), Monroe (36055), Nassau (36059), New York (36061), Niagara (36063), Oneida (36065), Onondaga (36067), Orange (36071), Putnam (36079), Queens (36081), Richmond (36085), Rockland (36087), Schoharie (36095), St. Lawrence (36089), Suffolk (36103), Tompkins (36109)*, Ulster (36111), Warren (36113), Washington (36115), Westchester (36119)
OH Adams (39001), Allen (39003), Butler (39017), Clark (39023), Clermont (39025), Cuyahoga (39035), Franklin (39049), Hamilton (39061), Lake (39085), Lawrence (39087), Lorain (39093), Lucas (39095), Mahoning (39099), Montgomery (39113), Stark (39151), Summit (39153)
OK Texas (40139)
OR Baker (41001)*, Clackamas (41005), Clatsop (41007), Columbia (41009), Coos (41011), Curry (41015), Douglas (41019), Gilliam (41021), Harney (41025)*, Hood River (41027), Jackson (41029), Josephine (41033), Klamath (41035), Lake (41037)*, Lane (41039), Lincoln (41041), Linn (41043), Marion (41047), Multnomah (41051), Sherman (41055), Tillamook (41057), Union (41061), Wallowa (41063), Wasco (41065)
PA Allegheny (42003), Beaver (42007), Berks (42011), Bucks (42017), Clinton (42035), Dauphin (42043), Delaware (42045), Fayette (42051)*, Huntingdon (42061)*, Lancaster (42071), Lehigh (42077), Luzerne (42079), Lycoming (42081), Mifflin (42087)*, Montour (42093), Northampton (42095), Northumberland (42097), Philadelphia (42101), Union (42119), Westmoreland (42129)*
RI Providence (44007)
SC Greenville (45045)*, Pickens (45077)
SD Harding (46063)*, Pennington (46103)*
TN Campbell (47013)*, Davidson (47037), Fentress (47049)*, Grundy (47061)*, Hamilton (47065), Knox (47093), Lake (47095)*, Marion (47115)*, Obion (47131)*, Sevier (47155), Unicoi (47171), Van Buren (47175)*, White (47185)*
TX Aransas (48007), Brewster (48043), Calhoun (48057), Cameron (48061), Culberson (48109), Kenedy (48261), Kleberg (48273), Matagorda (48321), Nueces (48355), Presidio (48377), Willacy (48489)
UT Beaver (49001), Box Elder (49003), Cache (49005)*, Carbon (49007), Daggett (49009), Davis (49011), Duchesne (49013), Emery (49015), Garfield (49017), Grand (49019), Iron (49021), Juab (49023), Kane (49025), Millard (49027)*, Salt Lake (49035), San Juan (49037), Sanpete (49039), Sevier (49041), Tooele (49045), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049), Washington (49053), Wayne (49055), Weber (49057)
VA Accomack (51001), Alleghany (51005)*, Buchanan (51027)*, Charles City (51036), Dickenson (51051)*, Fairfax (51059), Giles (51071)*, Gloucester (51073), Isle of Wight (51093), Lancaster (51103), Lee (51105), Madison (51113), Middlesex (51119), Newport News (City) (51700), Norfolk (City) (51710), Northampton (51131), Page (51139), Portsmouth (City) (51740), Prince George (51149), Richmond (City) (51760)*, Rockbridge (51163), Shenandoah (51171), York (51199)
VT Addison (50001), Bennington (50003), Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007), Essex (50009), Franklin (50011), Grand Isle (50013)*, Lamoille (50015), Orange (50017), Orleans (50019), Rutland (50021), Washington (50023), Windsor (50027)
WA Asotin (53003)+, Benton (53005)+, Chelan (53007)+, Clallam (53009)+, Clark (53011)+, Cowlitz (53015)+, Douglas (53017)+, Ferry (53019)+, Franklin (53021)+, Grant (53025)+, Grays Harbor (53027)+, Jefferson (53031)+, King (53033)+, Kittitas (53037)+, Klickitat (53039)+, Lewis (53041)+, Lincoln (53043)+, Mason (53045)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Pacific (53049)+, Pend Oreille (53051)+, Pierce (53053)+, San Juan (53055)+, Skagit (53057)+, Skamania (53059)+, Snohomish (53061)+, Spokane (53063)+, Stevens (53065)+, Thurston (53067)+, Wahkiakum (53069)+, Walla Walla (53071)+, Whatcom (53073)+, Yakima (53077)+
WI Ashland (55003), Bayfield (55007), Brown (55009), Buffalo (55011), Columbia (55021), Crawford (55023), Dane (55025), Douglas (55031), Grant (55043), Jefferson (55055), Kenosha (55059), Kewaunee (55061), La Crosse (55063), Manitowoc (55071), Marathon (55073), Milwaukee (55079), Outagamie (55087), Ozaukee (55089), Pepin (55091), Pierce (55093), Racine (55101), Sauk (55111), Sheboygan (55117), Trempealeau (55121), Vernon (55123), Winnebago (55139)
WV Grant (54023), Jefferson (54037), Mason (54053), Pendleton (54071)*, Wood (54107)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Fremont (56013), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Pemigewasset (01070001)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Contoocook (01070003)+*, Nashua (01070004)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Passumpsic (01080102)+, Waits (01080103)+, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+, White (01080105)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Miller (01080202)+, Deerfield (01080203)+*, Chicopee (01080204)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Charles (01090001)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Thames (01100003)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+
02 Upper Hudson (02020001)+, Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Mohawk (02020004)+, Schoharie (02020005)+, Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Rondout (02020007)+, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Bronx (02030102)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Northern Long Island (02030201)+, Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Long Island Sound (02030203)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Delaware Bay (02040204)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02040304)+, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+*, Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203)+, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*, Lower Juniata (02050304)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Upper Chesapeake Bay (02060001)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, North Fork Shenandoah (02070006)+, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103)+, Lower Rappahannock (02080104)+, York (02080107)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+, Upper James (02080201)+*, Maury (02080202)+, Middle James-Willis (02080205)+*, Lower James (02080206)+, Hampton Roads (02080208)+
03 Upper Dan (03010103)+*, Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico (03020104)+*, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, New River (03020302)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Upper Yadkin (03040101)+, Upper Catawba (03050101)+, Lower Catawba (03050103)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+, Saluda (03050109)+, Seneca (03060101)+, Tugaloo (03060102)+, Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+, Nassau (03070205)+, Vero Beach (03080203)+, Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103)+, Lake Okeechobee (03090201)+, Everglades (03090202)+, Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207)+, Upper Chattahoochee (03130001)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, New (03130013)+, Apalachicola Bay (03130014)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+*, Noxubee (03160108)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Black-Presque Isle (04020101)+, Ontonagon (04020102)+*, Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103)+, Dead-Kelsey (04020105)+, Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Lake Superior (04020300)+, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+, Escanaba (04030110)+*, Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112)+*, Upper Fox (04030201)+, Lower Fox (04030204)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Black-Macatawa (04050002)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Lake Michigan (04060200)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+, Flint (04080204)+, Saginaw (04080206)+, Lake Huron (04080300)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Marys (04100004)+, Auglaize (04100007)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Black-Rocky (04110001)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Lower Genesee (04130003)+, Seneca (04140201)+, Black (04150101)+*, Upper St. Lawrence (04150301)+, Oswegatchie (04150302)+, Indian (04150303)+*, St. Regis (04150306)+, English-Salmon (04150307)+*, Chateaugay-English (04150308)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Ausable River (04150404)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Missiquoi River (04150407)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Lower Allegheny (05010009)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Mahoning (05030103)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Upper New (05050001)+*, Middle New (05050002)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Upper Levisa (05070202)+*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Wildcat (05120107)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Driftwood (05120204)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+*, Obey (05130105)+*, Collins (05130107)+*, Caney (05130108)+*, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Salt (05140102)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+
06 Watauga (06010103)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+, Powell (06010206)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+*, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Root (07040008)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Lake Dubay (07070002)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+
08 Obion (08010202)+*, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Lower Yazoo (08030208)+, Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)+*, Homochitto (08060205)+, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)+, West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)+
09 Upper Red (09020104)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+*
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Big Hole (10020004)+, Jefferson (10020005)+, Madison (10020007)+, Gallatin (10020008)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Smith (10030103)+, Two Medicine (10030201)+, Marias (10030203)+, Teton (10030205)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Upper Yellowstone (10070002)+, Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004)+, Stillwater (10070005)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+, Lower Little Missouri (10110205)+, Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Hat (10120108)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+*, Rapid (10120110)+*, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+*, Knife (10130201)+, South Fork Grand (10130302)+*, Upper Moreau (10130305)+*, Upper White (10140201)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Horse (10180012)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+*, Lower North Platte (10180014)+, South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+*, Upper South Platte (10190002)+, Clear (10190004)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101)+, Wood (10200102)+*, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Salt (10200203)+, Mud (10210005)+*, Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Calamus (10210008)+, Loup (10210009)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Nishnabotna (10240004)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+, Medicine (10250008)+, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Upper Big Blue (10270201)+, Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+, Upper Arkansas (11020002)+, Fountain (11020003)+, Huerfano (11020006)+, Purgatoire (11020010)+, Cow (11030011)+, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+*, North Fork Cimarron (11040003)+*, Mora (11080004)+*, Middle Beaver (11100102)+
12 Central Matagorda Bay (12100401)+, West Matagorda Bay (12100402)+, East San Antonio Bay (12100403)+, Aransas Bay (12100405)+, South Corpus Christi Bay (12110202)+, North Laguna Madre (12110203)+, Central Laguna Madre (12110207)+, South Laguna Madre (12110208)+
13 Rio Grande headwaters (13010001)+, Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002)+, Saguache (13010004)+, Conejos (13010005)+, Upper Rio Grande (13020101)+, Rio Chama (13020102)+, Jemez (13020202)+, Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203)+, North Plains (13020206)+, Rio San Jose (13020207)+, Caballo (13030101)+, El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+, Jornada Draw (13030103)+, Cibolo-Red Light (13040201)+, Black Hills-Fresno (13040203)+, Terlingua (13040204)+, Big Bend (13040205)+, Reagan-Sanderson (13040208)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Salt Basin (13050004)+, Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+, Delaware (13070002)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Blue (14010002)+, Eagle (14010003)+, Roaring Fork (14010004)+, Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+, Upper Gunnison (14020002)+, Lower Gunnison (14020005)+, Uncompahange (14020006)+, Westwater Canyon (14030001)+, Upper Dolores (14030002)+, Lower Dolores (14030004)+, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Upper Yampa (14050001)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Upper White (14050005)+*, Lower White (14050007)+*, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Strawberry (14060004)+, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+, Price (14060007)+, Lower Green (14060008)+, San Rafael (14060009)+, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Muddy (14070002)+, Fremont (14070003)+*, Dirty Devil (14070004)+, Escalante (14070005)+, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+, Paria (14070007)+, Upper San Juan (14080101)+, Piedra (14080102)+, Animas (14080104)+, Middle San Juan (14080105)+, Chaco (14080106)+*, Mancos (14080107)+, Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+, Mcelmo (14080202)+, Chinle (14080204)+, Lower San Juan (14080205)+
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Grand Canyon (15010002)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Lake Mead (15010005)+, Grand Wash (15010006)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+, White (15010011)+, Muddy (15010012)+, Meadow Valley Wash (15010013)+, Detrital Wash (15010014)+, Las Vegas Wash (15010015)+, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+, Zuni (15020004)+*, Upper Puerco (15020006)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+, Havasu-Mohave Lakes (15030101)+, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Bouse Wash (15030105)+, Big Sandy (15030201)+, Santa Maria (15030203)+, Bill Williams (15030204)+, San Francisco (15040004)+, Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Black (15060101)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Tonto (15060105)+, Lower Salt (15060106)+, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+, Lower Verde (15060203)+, Agua Fria (15070102)+, Hassayampa (15070103)+, San Cristobal Wash (15070203)+, Rio De La Concepcion (15080200)+, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+, Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+, Skull Valley (16020305)+, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+, Northern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020308)+, Curlew Valley (16020309)+, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+, Middle Sevier (16030003)+, Lower Sevier (16030005)+, Escalante Desert (16030006)+, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+, Lower Beaver (16030008)+*, North Fork Humboldt (16040102)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Walker Lake (16050304)+*, Southern Big Smoky Valley (16060003)+, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys (16060014)+, Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys (16060015)+
17 Upper Kootenai (17010101)+, Yaak (17010103)+, Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Upper Clark Fork (17010201)+, Flint-Rock (17010202)+, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+, Flathead Lake (17010208)+, South Fork Flathead (17010209)+, Swan (17010211)+, Lower Flathead (17010212)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+*, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216), Upper Spokane (17010305), Hangman (17010306), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Chief Joseph (17020005), Methow (17020008), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Wenatchee (17020011), Moses Coulee (17020012), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Naches (17030002), Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Willow (17040205)+, Goose (17040211)+*, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+*, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+*, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Imnaha (17060102)+*, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Upper Grande Ronde (17060104)+, Wallowa (17060105)+, Lower Grande Ronde (17060106), Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107), Palouse (17060108), Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Little Salmon (17060210)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Klickitat (17070106), Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Lewis (17080002), Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003)+, Upper Cowlitz (17080004), Lower Cowlitz (17080005), Lower Columbia (17080006)+, Middle Fork Willamette (17090001)+, Coast Fork Willamette (17090002)+, Upper Willamette (17090003)+, Mckenzie (17090004)+, North Santiam (17090005)+, South Santiam (17090006)+, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, Lower Willamette (17090012)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101), Queets-Quinault (17100102), Upper Chehalis (17100103), Grays Harbor (17100105), Willapa Bay (17100106), Necanicum (17100201)+, Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu (17100203)+, Siletz-Yaquina (17100204)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+, Umpqua (17100303)+, Coos (17100304)+, Coquille (17100305)+, Sixes (17100306)+, Upper Rogue (17100307)+, Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Applegate (17100309)+*, Lower Rogue (17100310)+, Illinois (17100311)+, Chetco (17100312)+, Fraser (17110001), Strait of Georgia (17110002), San Juan Islands (17110003), Nooksack (17110004), Upper Skagit (17110005), Sauk (17110006), Lower Skagit (17110007), Stillaguamish (17110008), Skykomish (17110009), Snoqualmie (17110010), Snohomish (17110011), Lake Washington (17110012), Duwamish (17110013), Puyallup (17110014), Nisqually (17110015), Deschutes (17110016), Puget Sound (17110019), Dungeness-Elwha (17110020), Crescent-Hoko (17110021), Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+*, Summer Lake (17120005)+*
18 Lower Eel (18010105)+, South Fork Eel (18010106)+, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+, Williamson (18010201)+*, Upper Klamath Lake (18010203)+, Upper Klamath (18010206)+, Scott (18010208)+, Lower Klamath (18010209)+*, Salmon (18010210)+, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, North Fork American (18020128)+, Cow Creek (18020151)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Upper Putah (18020162)+, Lower Sacramento (18020163)+, San Joaquin Delta (18040003)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, Coyote (18050003)+, San Francisco Bay (18050004)+, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+, San Francisco Coastal South (18050006)+, San Lorenzo-Soquel (18060001)+, Salinas (18060005)+, San Antonio (18060009)+, Santa Ynez (18060010)+, Alisal-Elkhorn Sloughs (18060011)+, Santa Barbara Coastal (18060013)+, Santa Monica Bay (18070104)+, Los Angeles (18070105)+, Newport Bay (18070204)+, San Diego (18070304)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: Peregrine Falcon.
General Description: A falcon with long pointed wings, a dark crown and nape, and a dark wedge extending below the eye; forehead is pale in immature, which are mainly brownish above rather than black or gray as in adults; arctic birds are relatively pale, and peregrines of the northwest coast of North America are very dark, compared to the intermediate coloration of the subspecies (ANATUM) that once ranged across North America; averages 41-51 cm long, 91-112 cm in wingspan (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from merlin (FALCO COLUMBARIUS), prairie falcon (FALCO MEXICANUS), and gyrfalcon (FALCO RUSTICOLUS) in having a broad dark wedge extending down the side of the head; lacks the reddish back of the American kestrel (FALCO SPARVERIUS); lacks the contrasting dark axillaries and underwing coverts of the prairie falcon.
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size averages 4 at mid-latitudes, 3 in far north. Incubation lasts 32-35 days, mainly by female (male brings food). Young fledge at 39-49 days, gradually become independent. First breeds usually at 2-3 years, occasionally as yearling. Usually lifelong pair bond. Replaces lost clutches, usually at alternate site. Brood losses apparently caused mainly by bad weather. See many further details in Palmer (1988). In northwestern Arizona, mean distance between centers of nesting areas was around 6-8 km (Brown et al. 1992).
Ecology Comments: Great-horned Owl may be a serious nest predator in the U.S. Severe weather may result in high mortality in far north. Foraging range up to 27 kilometers (Martin 1979); home ranges in Great Britain varied from 44-65 square kilometers, and averaged 52 square kilometers (Brown and Amadon 1968). In Utah, home range radii varied from 0.3 to 29.8 kilometers, average 12.2 km (n = 19; Porter and White 1973).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Populations nesting in northern latitudes are highly migratory; those nesting in northern maritime climates, at mid-latitudes, and in the Southern Hemisphere much less so (Cade 1982). Tundra breeders migrate farthest, bypassing those farther south; a few winter in Florida, some in Caribbean, perhaps some in Central America, most in southern South America (Palmer 1988). Breeders from central Alaska migrated through central North America and wintered in southern Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean region, and South America (Britten et al. 1995). Two breeders from southern Utah migrated through western Mexico, and one continued to a wintering site in Nicaragua (Britten et al. 1995).

In the U.S., the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to South Carolina and the barrier islands of the Texas Gulf Coast are important feeding areas for long-distance migrants.

Arrives in northern breeding areas late April-early May; departure begins late August-early September (Johnson and Herter 1989). See Palmer (1988) for further information on timing of migration.

From Padre Island, Texas, a northbound migrant reached south-central Canada in four days, and a southbound migrant passed through Mexico and reached Guatemala in six days (Chavez-Ramirez et al. 1994).

Marine Habitat(s): Aerial
Estuarine Habitat(s): Aerial, Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): Aerial, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Desert, Shrubland/chaparral, Tundra, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Various open situations from tundra, moorlands, steppe, and seacoasts, especially where there are suitable nesting cliffs, to mountains, open forested regions, and human population centers (AOU 1983). When not breeding, occurs in areas where prey concentrate, including farmlands, marshes, lakeshores, river mouths, tidal flats, dunes and beaches, broad river valleys, cities, and airports.

Often nests on ledge or hole on face of rocky cliff or crag. River banks, tundra mounds, open bogs, large stick nests of other species, tree hollows, and man-made structures (e.g., ledges of city buildings) are used locally (Cade 1982). Nests typically are situated on ledges of vertical rocky cliffs, commonly with a sheltering overhang (Palmer 1988, Campbell et al 1990). Tundra populations nests typically on rocky cliffs, bluffs, or dirt banks. Ideal locations include undisturbed areas with a wide view, near water, and close to plentiful prey. Substitute man-made sites include tall buildings, bridges, rock quarries, and raised platforms.

See Grebence and White (1989) for information on nesting along the Colorado River system.

Adult Food Habits: Carnivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore
Food Comments: Feeds primarily on birds (medium-size passerines up to small waterfowl); rarely or locally, small mammals (e.g., bats, lemmings), lizards, fishes, and insects (by young birds) may be taken. Prey pursuit initiated from perch or while soaring. May hunt up to several km from nest site (Skaggs et al. 1988). See Rosenfield et al. (1995) for information on food habits in Greenland.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: In general, much hunting occurs in morning, and to lesser extent toward evening, but may hunt anytime during day.
Length: 51 centimeters
Weight: 1500 grams
Economic Attributes
Economic Comments: Has been widely used for falconry.
Management Summary
Management Requirements: Potholes dug into cliffs are readily accepted as nest sites in some areas.

Reintroduction using captive-raised birds (thousands have been released) has been partially successful, more so in the U.S. than in Canada (Peakall 1990). See Holroyd and Banasch (1990) for summary of results of reintroductions in southern Canada and recommendations to improve future release efforts. See Sherrod et al. (1982) for information on reintroduction methods. See The Peregrine Fund (1992) for a recent summary of release data. See also Cade et al. (1988).

See Skaggs et al. (1988) and Lefranc and Glinski (1988) for management recommendations for the southwestern U.S.

See Johnson (1988) for responses to various human stimuli at different distances from nesting areas.

Monitoring Requirements: See Britten et al. (1995) for information on satellite telemetry.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: If foraging area is known, it can be mapped in the same EO as a separate source feature from the nest site. Note that foraging areas of different occurences may overlap.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 20 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 20 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Occurrences represent relatively distinct clusters of one or more nest sites and do not necessarily represent demographically distinct populations. Occurrence separation is based on nest sites; nest sites separated by a gap smaller than the separation distance represent the same occurrence.

Foraging ranges up to 27 kilometers radius (Martin 1979), average home range radius about 8-12 kilometers (Brown and Amadon 1968, Porter and White 1973).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 8 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Average foraging distance from nest (Brown and Amadon 1968).
Date: 24Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost site, Foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering individuals outside their breeding area (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location. Occurrences should be areas where more than one individual is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; nonbreeding occurrences based primarily on concentrations of wintering individuals, rather than on distinct populations.
Date: 16Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Oct2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jefferson, J., & E. West, revisions by S. Cannings
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., MINOR REVISIONS BY S. CANNINGS

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