Mustela nigripes - (Audubon and Bachman, 1851)
Black-footed Ferret
Other English Common Names: black-footed ferret
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Mustela nigripes (Audubon and Bachman, 1851) (TSN 180557)
French Common Names: putois d'Amérique
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102031
Element Code: AMAJF02040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Carnivores
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae Mustela
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Mustela nigripes
Taxonomic Comments: Some have suggested that M. nigripes may be conspecific with Old World M. eversmanii (see Wozencraft, in Wilson and Reeder 2005). However, the two have been been accepted as distinct species by all major North American sources for many years.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 16Aug2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Formerly widespread in central North America; virtually or actually exterminated from the wild by 1987, primarily as a result of prairie dog and predator control actions; captive breeding and reintroductions in several areas have been successful at establishing reproducing populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NX (13Apr2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S1), Colorado (S1), Kansas (S1), Montana (S1), Navajo Nation (SX), Nebraska (SH), New Mexico (SH), North Dakota (S1), Oklahoma (SX), South Dakota (S1), Texas (SX), Utah (S1), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (SX), Saskatchewan (SX)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE, XN: Listed endangered, nonessential experimental population (11Mar1967)
Comments on USESA: Listed by USFWS as Endangered throughout range except in certain areas of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah, where listed as XN (nonessential experimental populations) (Federal Register, 20 March 1996, 29 April 1997, 1 October 1998, 13 October 2000, 16 May 2003). In mid-2005, USFWS announced the initiation of a 5-year review of black-footed ferret status and its listing classification. USFWS, in coordination with the State of Wyoming and other partners, will reestablish additional populations into occupied prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) habitat in Wyoming (USFWS 2015). This XN area and two previously designated XN populations in Wyoming collectively cover the entire State of Wyoming and provide consistent management flexibility Statewide.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain
Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: XT (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Extirpated (26Apr2009)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: Not observed in Canada since 1937. Considered extirpated following its assessment in 1974.

Status history: Extirpated by 1974. Designated Extirpated in April 1978. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000 and in April 2009.

IUCN Red List Category: EN - Endangered
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix I

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range formerly encompassed a large area of the Great Plains, mountain basins, and semi-arid grasslands of North America. Subsequently the species was extirpated virtually everywhere. The last known wild population existed in the vicinity of Meeteetse, Wyoming, until early 1987. Ferrets from that area were captured and used for captive breeding. The species was reintroduced in Shirley Basin, Wyoming, in the early 1990s; since then it has also been reintroduced in South Dakota, Montana, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Chihuahua (Federal Register, 13 April 1993, 27 June 1994, 18 August 1994, 20 March 1996, 29 April 1997; Bard 2002).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: At present, populations exist at several reintroduction sites in Wyoming, South Dakota, Montana, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Chihuahua (USFWS 2000, Bard 2002).

Population Size: 250 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: This species was nearly extinct in the late 1980s. Captive breeding has been successful. Several hundred individuals exist in captivity and in reintroduced populations in several states and Mexico (Bard 2002). As of late 2005, a total of about 400 were alive in the wild in all the states where releases have occurred.

Viability/Integrity Comments: As of early 2006, captive-born ferrets have begun to reproduce in the wild in at least six western states where they have been reintroduced (Colorado Division of Wildlife).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The species was extirpated from most of the former large range mainly as a result of prairie dog and predator control programs. Canine distemper, in conjunction with captures for captive breeding, resulted in extirpation of the last known wild population by early 1987. See Forrest et al. (1988) and Thorne and Williams (1988) for information on the distemper-caused decline that occurred in 1985.

Black-footed ferrets are highly susceptible to sylvatic plague. In nature, they could be exposed either by fleabite or consumption of infected prey. This disease has severely hampered efforts to restore ferrets to their historical range. Experimental results indicate that black-footed ferrets can be immunized against plague (Rocke et al. 2004). However, control of plague in black-footed ferrets and the ultimate recovery of the species will require control of the disease in their primary prey (prairie dogs) (Rocke et al. 2004).

Predation by coyote and badger and dispersal have been the primary problems at the Shirley Basin site (1994, End. Sp. Tech. Bull. 19(1):10, 13).

Reading and Kellert (1993) found that ranchers within a proposed reintroduction site in Phillips County, Montana, were antagonistic toward the reintroduction program. As of 2005, there was an on-going conflict between ranchers wanting to control prairie dog populations on grazing lands (through poisoning and recreational shoorting) and those wishing to protect and expand ferret habitat (i.e., prairie dog populations).

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Captive and wild populations have increased to several hundred individuals (Bard 2002).

Long-term Trend: Decline of >90%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: This species is in need of continued protection of all extant occurrences. Recovery remains dependent on captive breeding and reintroduction.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) The range formerly encompassed a large area of the Great Plains, mountain basins, and semi-arid grasslands of North America. Subsequently the species was extirpated virtually everywhere. The last known wild population existed in the vicinity of Meeteetse, Wyoming, until early 1987. Ferrets from that area were captured and used for captive breeding. The species was reintroduced in Shirley Basin, Wyoming, in the early 1990s; since then it has also been reintroduced in South Dakota, Montana, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Chihuahua (Federal Register, 13 April 1993, 27 June 1994, 18 August 1994, 20 March 1996, 29 April 1997; Bard 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NNextirpated, OKextirpated, SD, TXextirpated, UT, WY
Canada ABextirpated, SKextirpated

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2003; NatureServe, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Navajo (04017)*, Yavapai (04025)
CO Adams (08001)*, Arapahoe (08005)*, Baca (08009)*, Bent (08011)*, Broomfield (08014)*, Chaffee (08015)*, Conejos (08021)*, Costilla (08023)*, Crowley (08025)*, Delta (08029)*, Denver (08031)*, El Paso (08041)*, Jefferson (08059)*, Kit Carson (08063)*, La Plata (08067)*, Lake (08065)*, Larimer (08069)*, Las Animas (08071)*, Lincoln (08073)*, Logan (08075)*, Mesa (08077)*, Moffat (08081)*, Montezuma (08083)*, Morgan (08087)*, Ouray (08091)*, Park (08093)*, Rio Blanco (08103)*, Rio Grande (08105)*, Saguache (08109)*, Summit (08117)*, Teller (08119)*, Weld (08123)*, Yuma (08125)*
KS Logan (20109)
MT Big Horn (30003), Blaine (30005), Fergus (30027), Garfield (30033), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Valley (30105), Yellowstone (30111)
ND Adams (38001)*, Billings (38007), Bowman (38011)*, Burleigh (38015)*, Dunn (38025), Emmons (38029)*, Golden Valley (38033)*, Hettinger (38041)*, McKenzie (38053)*, McLean (38055)*, Mercer (38057)*, Morton (38059)*, Mountrail (38061)*, Sioux (38085)*, Slope (38087)*, Stark (38089)
NM Mckinley (35031)*, San Juan (35045)*
SD Bennett (46007)*, Butte (46019)*, Corson (46031), Custer (46033), Dewey (46041)*, Fall River (46047)*, Haakon (46055)*, Harding (46063)*, Hughes (46065)*, Hyde (46069)*, Jackson (46071)*, Jones (46075)*, Lake (46079)*, Lyman (46085), Meade (46093)*, Mellette (46095)*, Pennington (46103), Perkins (46105)*, Shannon (46113)*, Stanley (46117), Sully (46119)*, Todd (46121)*, Tripp (46123)*, Walworth (46129)*, Ziebach (46137)*
UT Carbon (49007)*, Daggett (49009)*, Duchesne (49013)*, Emery (49015)*, Grand (49019), Rich (49033)*, San Juan (49037), Uintah (49047)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013)*, Goshen (56015)*, Hot Springs (56017)*, Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031)*, Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Peoples (10050009)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+*, Badwater (10080006)+*, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+*, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Shoshone (10080014)+*, Lower Bighorn (10080015)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Lower Yellowstone (10100004)+*, Lake Sakakawea (10110101)+*, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Middle Little Missouri (10110203)+, Beaver (10110204)+*, Lower Little Missouri (10110205)+*, Antelope (10120101)+, Upper Cheyenne (10120103)+, Lance (10120104)+, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+*, Beaver (10120107)+*, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Rapid (10120110)+*, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Lower Cheyenne (10120112)+*, Cherry (10120113)+*, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+*, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+*, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)+*, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+, Lower Lake Oahe (10130105)+*, Knife (10130201)+, Upper Heart (10130202)+*, Upper Cannonball (10130204)+, Cedar (10130205)+*, Lower Cannonball (10130206)+*, North Fork Grand (10130301)+*, South Fork Moreau (10130304)+*, Upper Moreau (10130305)+*, Lower Moreau (10130306)+*, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Bad (10140102)+, Medicine Knoll (10140103)+*, Medicine (10140104)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Middle White (10140202)+*, Little White (10140203)+*, Lower White (10140204)+*, Keya Paha (10150006)+*, Turtle (10160009)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+*, Upper Laramie (10180010)+*, Lower Laramie (10180011)+*, South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+*, Upper South Platte (10190002)+*, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, Clear (10190004)+*, St. Vrain (10190005)+*, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Lone Tree-Owl (10190008)+*, Crow (10190009)+*, Kiowa (10190010)+*, Bijou (10190011)+*, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012)+*, Pawnee (10190014)+*, North Fork Republican (10250002)+*, South Fork Republican (10250003)+*, Upper Smoky Hill (10260003)+, Ladder (10260004)+
11 Arkansas Headwaters (11020001)+*, Upper Arkansas (11020002)+*, Fountain (11020003)+*, Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005)+*, Apishapa (11020007)+*, Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+*, Purgatoire (11020010)+*, Big Sandy (11020011)+*, Rush (11020012)+*, Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+*, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+*, Sand Arroyo (11040004)+*, Bear (11040005)+*
13 Rio Grande headwaters (13010001)+*, Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002)+*, Saguache (13010004)+*, Conejos (13010005)+*, Upper Rio Grande (13020101)+*
14 Blue (14010002)+*, Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+*, North Fork Gunnison (14020004)+*, Uncompahange (14020006)+*, Westwater Canyon (14030001)+, Upper Dolores (14030002)+*, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+, Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+*, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Upper Yampa (14050001)+*, Lower Yampa (14050002)+*, Little Snake (14050003)+*, Muddy (14050004)+, Upper White (14050005)+*, Lower White (14050007)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+*, Price (14060007)+*, Lower Green (14060008)+*, San Rafael (14060009)+*, Upper San Juan (14080101)+*, Animas (14080104)+*, Middle San Juan (14080105)+*, Chaco (14080106)+*, Mancos (14080107)+*, Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201)+*, Montezuma (14080203)+
15 Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Hualapai Wash (15010007)+, Corn-Oraibi (15020012)+*, Polacca Wash (15020013)+*, Jadito Wash (15020014)+*, Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+*, Dinnebito Wash (15020017)+*, Moenkopi Wash (15020018)+*, Big Chino-Williamson Valley (15060201)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+*, Central Bear (16010102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A slim-bodied member of the weasel family.
General Description: This carnivore is shaped like a mink but the dorsal color is yellowish brown or buff, with a brownish wash on the back; belly is slightly paler; tail tip and feet are black or at least dark; the face has a dark mask around the eyes, with white on the face above and below the mask (Whitaker 1996).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Weasels are brown above and whitish or yellowish below; mink is almost entirely dark brown to black; weasels and mink lack the dark mask.
Reproduction Comments: In captivy, copulation occurred in March and early April. Gestation was 42 and 45 days for 1 female in 2 breeding seasons. In wild, litter size in South Dakota averaged 3.5 (range 1-5) (Hillman and Clark 1980), 3.3 at emergence in Wyoming (Forrest et al. 1988). Young appear above ground usually in July, disperse in fall. At least some females reproduce as yearlings (Forrest et al. 1988).
Ecology Comments: Secretive, rarely observed except at night. Probably solitary except during breeding season. Closely associated with prairie dogs. May range over area of up to 100 ha during 3-8 day period in winter (Rickart 1987). Two reintroduced ferrets in Shirley Basin moved three and five miles before settling. See Forrest et al. 1988 for population attributes of Meeteetse colony, 1981-1985.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: This species is limited to open habitat, the same habitat used by prairie dogs: grasslands, steppe, and shrub steppe. Resting and birthing sites are in underground burrows, generally made by prairie dogs. It has been estimated that about 40-60 hectares of prairie dog colony are needed to support one ferret. See Biggins et al. (in Oldemeyer et al. 1993) for information on evaluating areas as potential ferret habitat; factors include size of prairie dog complex, prairie dog population density, spatial arrangement of prairie dog colonies, potential for disease in prairie dogs and ferrets, potential for prairie dog expansion, abundance of predators, future resource conflicts and ownership stability, and public and landowner attitudes.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore
Food Comments: Prairie dogs are an important food source; one study (N=82) found prairie dog remains in 91% of analyzed ferret scats (Hillman and Clark 1980). Alternate prey probably eaten when necessary, (e.g., ground squirrels, cottontail rabbits, deer mice). Owen et al. (2000) point out that Pleistocene populations M. NIGRIPES did not need prairie dogs to survive; many fossil sites are associated with abundant ground squirrel (SPERMOPHILUS) remains, with no evidence of prairie dogs.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Less active in winter; inactive for periods of up to 6 nights and days (Rickart 1987).
Length: 57 centimeters
Weight: 633 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Restoration Potential: Captive breeding has been highly successful.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: See Bevers et al. (1997) for information on spatial optimization of prairie dog colonies for ferret recovery.
Management Requirements: See Seal et al. (1989) for discussion of captive propagation and aspects of population biology relevant to reintroduction. See Federal Register, 18 August 1994, for reintroduction protocols for South Dakota and Montana.

See Oldemeyer et al. (1993) for information on the management of prairie dog complexes for the reintroduction of black-footed ferret. Owen et al. (2000) point out that Pleistocene M. NIGRIPES did not need prairie dogs to survive; many fossil sites are associated with abundant ground squirrel (SPERMOPHILUS) remains, with no evidence of prairie dogs.

Monitoring Requirements: See "Black-footed ferret survey guidelines for compliance with the Endangered Species Act" and "Black-footed ferret survey guidelines for oil and gas activities in Wyoming for compliance with the Endangered Species Act," available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (contact: Chuck Davis, 307-772-2374).
Management Research Needs: See Miller et al. (in Oldemeyer et al. 1993) for a list of questions for management and research, related to ferret reintroduction, in priority order in each category of disease, habitat management, population dynamics, and public relations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence; usually, but not necessarily, at a prairie dog colony. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals that are presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major rivers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance a compromise between adult home ranges with diameters of roughly 1-2 kilometers (D. Keinath, pers. comm.) and the obvious mobility of these animals. Ferrets are known to move up to 8 kilometers in one night (Forrest et al. 1985). Juvenile dispersal generally on the order of 10 to 15 kilometers (D. Keinath, pers. comm.). Breeding almost always associated with prairie dog towns.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent probably will not be used in this species, since the boundaries of occurrences will be relatively precisely known. In the event that boundaries are not known, inferred extent could coincide with outside perimeter of occupied prairie dog town.
Date: 06Mar2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Mar2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Anderson, M.E., E. M. Brigham, E.M., C.N. Hillman, D.L. Lengkeek, R.L. Linder, A.L. Lovas, J.K. McDowell, and W.W. Painter. 1978. Black-footed ferret recovery plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC.

  • Animal Info Website, 2005. Black-footed ferret. Paul Massicot

  • Armstrong, D.M. 1972. Distribution of Mammals in Colorado. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence. 415 pp.

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  • BEE, J.W., G.E. GLASS, R.S. HOFFMANN, AND R.R. PATTERSON. 1981. MAMMALS IN KANSAS. UNIV.KANS.MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED. SERIES NO.7.

  • Bard, D. 2002. Black-footed ferrets return to Mexico. Endangered Species Bulletin 27(2):36-37.

  • Bevers, M., J. Hoff, D. W. Uresk, and G. L. Schenbeck. 1997. Spatial optimization of prairie dog colonies for black-footed ferret recovery. Operations Research 45(4):495-507.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf

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  • COSEWIC 2000. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 9 pp.

  • COSEWIC 2000. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 9 pp.

  • COSEWIC. 1978. Saskatchewan Department of Tourism and Renewable Resources. COSEWIC status report on the black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-9 pp.

  • Campbell, L. 1995. Endangered and Threatened Animals of Texas: Their Life History and Management. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Endangered Resources Branch, Austin, Texas. ix + 129 pp.

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  • Clark, T.M., T.M. Campbell III, M.H. Schroeder and L. Richardson. 1984. Handbook of Methods for Locating Black-footed Ferrets. Wyoming, BLM, Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 1. USBLM and Wyoming Game and Fish commission, Cheyenne. 56pp.

  • Clark, T.W., et.al. 1984. Handbook of methods for locating black-footed ferrets. Wyoming (U.S.) Bureau of Land Management Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 1, Cheyenne, WY. 55 p.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Division of Natural Resources, Navajo Fish and Wildlife Department. 1995. Endangered Species List for The Navajo Nation.

  • Durrant, S. D. 1952. Mammals of Utah, taxonomy and distribution. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 6: 1-549.

  • Esch, K.L, Beauvais, G.P. and D.A. Keinath. 2005. Species conservation assessment for Black Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) in Wyoming. Report prepared for USDI Wyoming Bureau of Land Management by Katrina L. Esch and Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Federal Register 1996. EPA: Federal Register: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Establishment. 20 March 1996.

  • Federal Register, 1 October 1998. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Black-footed Ferrets in Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah.

  • Federal Register, 11 September 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Black-footed Ferrets in South-central South Dakota.

  • Federal Register, 13 October 2000. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Black-footed Ferrets in North-Central South Dakota.

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