Neotoma cinerea - (Ord, 1815)
Bushy-tailed Woodrat
Other English Common Names: bushy-tailed woodrat
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Neotoma cinerea (Ord, 1815) (TSN 180371)
French Common Names: rat ŕ queue touffue
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101806
Element Code: AMAFF08090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Cricetidae Neotoma
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Neotoma cinerea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 12Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S1), Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S5), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S4), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S4), New Mexico (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Oregon (S5), South Dakota (S5), Utah (S4S5), Washington (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5), Northwest Territories (SU), Saskatchewan (SH), Yukon Territory (S3S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western North America, from southeastern Yukon and westernmost Northwest Territories southward through British Columbia and western Alberta to northern Arizona and New Mexico, east to the western Dakotas (Smith 1997). See Grayson and Livingston (1989) for a discussion of high-elevation records (3648 m and 4342 m).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western North America, from southeastern Yukon and westernmost Northwest Territories southward through British Columbia and western Alberta to northern Arizona and New Mexico, east to the western Dakotas (Smith 1997). See Grayson and Livingston (1989) for a discussion of high-elevation records (3648 m and 4342 m).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, NT, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NE Dawes (31045), Garden (31069), Scotts Bluff (31157), Sheridan (31161), Sioux (31165)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Hat (10120108)+, Upper White (10140201)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding peaks in spring. Gestation lasts about five weeks. Up to 2-3 litters/year. Litter size is about 3-4. Births occur April-August in California. Young males disperse by 2.5 months, many females breed in natal area. Commonly 1 adult male with 1-3 adult females (Escherich 1981).
Ecology Comments: Most individuals occupy separate dens. Male may exclude other males from small rock outcrop inhabited by multiple females (Escherich 1981). Home range size in Alberta averaged 6.1 ha for males, 3.6 ha for females, much larger than for other woodrat species; females moved up to 470 m from the nest (Topping and Millar 1996). Average population density is about 1 per 20 acres (Banfield 1974).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Desert, Forest - Conifer, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Alpine to Sonoran life zones. Inhabits mountains, cliffs, talus slopes, caves, and rock outcrops, both in forests and open deserts; also in deserted buildings and mine shafts. Young are born in nest within den built of sticks among rocks or in old building or mine shaft.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Food Comments: Feeds on a variety of vegetation; twigs, shoots, leaves, needles, fruit, and seeds. May store food.
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year. Primarily nocturnal but may be seen during the day.
Length: 47 centimeters
Weight: 444 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Murid Rodents

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Separate sites separated by less than 1000 meters should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include: wide highways with heavy traffic (subjective determination) and highways with continuous solid barriers that prevent rodent passage; major water bodies, arbitrarily set at those greater than 50 meters across in ice-free areas and those greater than 200 meters wide if frozen regularly.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges may be quite small, but at least some species exhibit good dispersal ability that may take them several kilometers from their natal area (Maier 2002). Peromyscus that have been displaced up to 3 km may return home within a few days (see Maier 2002). Displaced Neotoma fuscipes dispersed up to at least 1.6 km from their release point in five nights (Smith 1965). A male Dicrostonyx richardsoni moved more than 3 kilometers per day several times (Engstrom, in Wilson and Ruff 1999). Some species can traverse significant distances of unsuitable habitat. For example, Peromyscus leucopus may move between wooded areas separated by a deforested agricultural gap of up to at least 2 km (Krohne and Hoch 1999). In New Brunswick, a tagged subadult male Peromyscus maniculatus was captured at locations 1.77 km apart after a period of 2 weeks in September, suggesting that dispersal may extend at least this far (Bowman et al. 1999). In Kansas, individual Peromyscus maniculatus were captured at trap sites up to 1.32 km apart (Rehmeier et al. 2004). Dispersal can play a key role in the population dynamics of murid rodents.

Patterns of genetic (DNA) variation indicate that gene flow can be low among subpopulations of Neotoma magister and that effective dispersal is limited among subpopulations separated by as little as 3 km (Castleberry et al. 2002).

Separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the typical small home range sizes of these mammals and their sometimes considerable dispersal ability and the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent populations.

Roads, especially divided highways, are major barriers to dispersal in small mammals (Oxley et al. 1974, Wilkins 1982, Garland and Bradley 1984).

Date: 08Mar2005
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Notes: Group contains most members of the family Muridae: mice, voles, lemmings, woodrats, etc.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Dec1997
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Armstrong, D.M. 1972. Distribution of Mammals in Colorado. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas. University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence. 415 pp.

  • Armstrong, David M. 1987. Rocky Mountain Mammals: A Handbook of Mammals of Rocky Mountain National Park and Vicinity. Colorado Associated University Press. 223 pp.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Banks, E. M., R. J. Brooks, and J. Schnell. 1975. A radiotracking study of home range and activity of the brown lemming (Lemmus trimucronatus). Journal of Mammalogy 56:888-901.

  • Beck, W.H. 1958. A guide to Saskatchewan mammals. Special Publication No. 1. Saskatchewan Natural History Society, Regina, Saskatchewan.

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  • Brooks, R. J., and E. M. Banks. 1971. Radio-tracking study of lemming home range. Communications in Behavioral Biology 6:1-5.

  • Castleberry, S., B., T. L. King, P. B. Wood, and W. M. Ford. 2002. Microsatellite DNA analysis of population structure in Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister). Journal of Mammalogy 83:1058-1070.

  • Clark, T. W. and M. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 314 pp.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Coombs, E. M. [no date-1977?]. Wildlife observations of the hot desert region, Washington County, Utah, with emphasis on reptilian species and their habitat in relation to livestock grazing. A report to the Cedar City District, BLM by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.

  • Douglass, R. J. 1977. Population dynamics, home ranges, and habitat associations of the yellow-cheeked vole, Microtus xanthognathus, in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 91:237-47.

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  • Garland, T., Jr. and W. G. Bradley. 1984. Effects of a highway on Mojave Desert rodent populations. American Midland Naturalist 111:47-56.

  • Grayson, D. K., S. D. Livingston, E. Rickart, and M. W. Shaver, III. 1996. Biogeographic significance of low-elevation records for NEOTOMA CINEREA from the northern Bonneville Basin, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 56:191-196.

  • Grayson, D. K., and S. D. Livingston. 1989. High-elevation records for NEOTOMA CINEREA in the White Mountains, California. Great Basin Nat. 49:392-395.

  • Hall, E. R. 1946. Mammals of Nevada. The University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

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  • Tlen, D.L. 1993. Kluane Southern Tutchone glossary: english to Southern Tutchone. First edition. The Northern Research Institute, Whitehorse, Yukon. 38 pp.

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  • Topping, M. G., and J. S. Millar. 1996b. Foraging movements of female bushy-tailed wood rats (NEOTOMA CINEREA). Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:798-801.

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