Calypte anna - (Lesson, 1829)
Anna's Hummingbird
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calypte anna (Lesson, 1829) (TSN 178036)
French Common Names: Colibri d'Anna
Spanish Common Names: Colibrí Cabeza Roja
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101647
Element Code: ABNUC47010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11294

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Apodiformes Trochilidae Calypte
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calypte anna
Taxonomic Comments: Howell and Webb (1995) merged Calypte with Archilochus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large nesting range mainly in Pacific states from British Columbia to Baja California; uses various natural and urbanized habitats; large population size; increasing in distribution and abundance; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (13Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Nevada (S4N), New Mexico (S3N), Oregon (S4?), Texas (SNA), Washington (S4B,S5N)
Canada British Columbia (S4S5), Newfoundland Island (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range includes the Pacific slope of western North America from southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, western Oreagon, and western California south to northwestern Baja California, including Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, and San Clemente islands in California and Isla Guadalupe, Mexico; eastward in southern California to the edge of the Mohave and Sonoran deserts, and in the lower Colorado River Valley and across the southern third of Arizona (at lower elevations in mesic situations), with nesting probable but unconfirmed in extreme southwestern New Mexico (Peloncillo Mountains, Hidalgo County; one breeding record in Texas, Davis Mountains; nesting in Nevada is not known, but the species is present throughout much of the year (Howell and Webb 1995, AOU 1998, Clark and Russell 2012).

Winter range extends from central British Columbia south to central Baja California, and east to Utah (casually), southern Arizona, central New Mexico, northern Sonora, and northern Chihuahua, casually north to south-coastal Alaska, central British Columbia, and western Montana, and east to central New Mexico, northern Coahuila, and east-central and southeastern Texas, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi, and southern Alabama (AOU 1998).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: The number of distinct occurrences or subpopulations has not been determined using standardized criteria, but this species is represented by a large number of observation/collection sites (e.g., see GBIF database, eBird) and locations (as defined by IUCN).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000 and may exceed 1,000,000. This species is common in much of its range.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. In many areas, this species has benefited from habitat alterations (e.g., plantings that enhance nectar availability and nesting sites) associated with residential and commercial development.

Short-term Trend: Increase of 10-25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Distribution and abundance have continued to increase over the past 10 years or three generations (e.g., see Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data).

Long-term Trend: Increase of >25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Range extent, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size have increased greatly over the past several decades (see Clark and Russell 2012, Breeding Bird Survey data).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range includes the Pacific slope of western North America from southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, western Oreagon, and western California south to northwestern Baja California, including Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, and San Clemente islands in California and Isla Guadalupe, Mexico; eastward in southern California to the edge of the Mohave and Sonoran deserts, and in the lower Colorado River Valley and across the southern third of Arizona (at lower elevations in mesic situations), with nesting probable but unconfirmed in extreme southwestern New Mexico (Peloncillo Mountains, Hidalgo County; one breeding record in Texas, Davis Mountains; nesting in Nevada is not known, but the species is present throughout much of the year (Howell and Webb 1995, AOU 1998, Clark and Russell 2012).

Winter range extends from central British Columbia south to central Baja California, and east to Utah (casually), southern Arizona, central New Mexico, northern Sonora, and northern Chihuahua, casually north to south-coastal Alaska, central British Columbia, and western Montana, and east to central New Mexico, northern Coahuila, and east-central and southeastern Texas, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi, and southern Alabama (AOU 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, NM, NV, OR, TX, WA
Canada BC, NF

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Natureserve, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Boundary (16021), Canyon (16027), Elmore (16039), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Twin Falls (16083)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding season varies with location. Clutch size is 2. Incubation, by female, lasts 14-19 days. Young are tended by female, leave nest in 18-26 days, independent in 1-2 weeks. Individual females produces two broods annually in many areas (Johnsgard 1983).
Ecology Comments: Males occupy territories for extended periods; territories are not necessarily related to food supply and quality (Powers 1987).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Seasonal movements are complex. Some individuals ascend to montane regions in summer after breeding. Others migrate southward or northward, or move eastward across Arizona and New Mexico. Local populations may include individuals that are resident throughout the year as well as migrants that have spent part of the year elsewhere. See Clark and Russell (2012) for further discussion.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Urban/edificarian, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes open woodland, chaparral, scrubby areas, and partly open situations, including gardens and meadows, in lowlands and seasonally in montane regions (AOU 1998). Nests are in trees, vines, shrubs, or artificial substrates in wide variety of locations, from <1 to about 9 meters above ground (see Clark and Russell 2012 for further information).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Nectarivore
Food Comments: Diet includes nectar, tree sap (e.g., at sapsucker holes), and small insects and spiders (caught in air; gleaned from tree trunks). Nectar sources include Eucalyptus, Nicotiana, Agave, Castilleja, Diplaucus, Ribes, Silena, Arctostaphylos, and many other native and exotic species (Clark and Russell 2012). 
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 10 centimeters
Weight: 4 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: No management, additional monitoring, or further protection are needed. Species thrives in landscaped urbanized settings. Distribution and abundance are increasing despite lack of any species-specific conservation measures.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hummingbirds

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: High potential for gene flow among populations of birds makes it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for hummingbirds; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering individuals (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (or fewer individuals for G1-G3 species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; a compromise between the often small home ranges of these birds, their great mobility, and the need for occurrences of reasonable size.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04May2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04May2015
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Baltosser, W. H., and P. E. Scott. 1996. Costa's Hummingbird (CALYPTE COSTAE). No. 251 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The Amerian Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC. 32pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bleiweiss, R., J. A. W. Kirsch, and J. C. Matheus. 1994. DNA-DNA hybridization evidence for subfamily structure among hummingbirds. Auk 111:8-19.

  • Bureau of Land Management. Life History Summaries.

  • Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. McNall. 1990b. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Nonpasserines: diurnal birds of prey through woodpeckers. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. 636 pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Clark, C. J., and S. M. Russell. 2012. Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/226. doi:10.2173/bna.226

  • Fraser, D.F., and L.R. Ramsay. 1991. Preliminary species management plan for Anna's Hummingbird in British Columbia. Unpubl. rep., B.C. Environ. Wildl. Branch, Victoria, B.C. 5pp.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Johnsgard, P. A. 1983c. Hummingbirds of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 304 pp.

  • Montgomerie, R. D. 1979. Energetics of foraging and competition in some tropcial hummingbirds. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Poole, A. F. and F. B. Gill. 1992. The birds of North America. The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Powers, D. R. 1987. Effects of variation in food quality on the breeding territoriality of the male Anna's hummingbird. Condor 89:103-111.

  • Powers, D. R., and S. M. Wethington. 1999. Broad-billed Hummingbird (CYNANTHUS LATIROSTRIS). No. 430 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors. The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 20pp.

  • Stiles, F. G. 1972. Food supply and the annual cycle of the Anna hummingbird. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 97: 1-109.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

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