Sterna forsteri - Nuttall, 1834
Forster's Tern
Other English Common Names: Forster's tern
Other Common Names: Trinta-Réis-de-Forster
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sterna forsteri Nuttall, 1834 (TSN 176887)
French Common Names: sterne de Forster
Spanish Common Names: Charrán de Forster
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101506
Element Code: ABNNM08090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 21683

© Dennis Donohue

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae Sterna
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sterna forsteri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1B,S5N), Arizona (S2N), Arkansas (SNA), California (S4), Colorado (S2B,S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S1B), District of Columbia (S2S3N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S2B), Illinois (S1), Indiana (SHB), Iowa (S2B,S3N), Kansas (S1B), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5), Maryland (S2B), Massachusetts (S1B,S2N), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (S3B), Mississippi (S5N), Missouri (SNA), Montana (S3B), Navajo Nation (S4M), Nebraska (S2), Nevada (S3B), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4B), New Mexico (S4N), New York (S1), North Carolina (S3B,S5N), North Dakota (SU), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S4N), Oregon (S3B), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (S2N), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S4B), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S5), Utah (S4B), Virginia (S3B,S3N), Washington (S3B), Wisconsin (S1B), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Alberta (S2S3B), British Columbia (S1B), Manitoba (S4B), Ontario (S2B), Saskatchewan (S4B)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Data Deficient (01Apr1996)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: There is insufficient information on recent population numbers on which to base a designation for this species.

Status history: Species considered in April 1996 and placed in the Data Deficient category.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: central Prairie Provinces of Canada (Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, to southeastern British Columbia) south to southern California, western Nevada, southern Idaho, northern Utah, northern and eastern Colorado, central Kansas, western Nebraska, northern Iowa, northwestern Indiana, to eastern Michigan; coastally from northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas), southeastern Texas to southern Alabama; along the Atlantic coast from Long Island to (rarely) South Carolina. WINTERS: central California and Baja California to Oaxaca and Guatemala, casually to Costa Rica; northern Veracruz to western Florida; Virginia to northern Florida; Bahamas and Greater Antilles.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: The 1982 breeding population from New York to Virginia was estimated at 4600 birds. Most of the Gulf Coast breeding population (about 23,000) occurs in Louisiana. About 8000 birds nested along the Pacific coast in the late 1970s, mostly in the San Francisco Bay area.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include human disturbance and development of nesting areas, loss of nests to natural flooding, and possibly predation by laughing gulls (Byrd and Johnston 1991).

Short-term Trend Comments: Population trend in the southeastern U.S., where probably more than half the world's population breeds, is not well known (Clapp and Buckley 1984). See Spendelow and Patton (1988) for further details and for information on an increase in the breeding population in the U.S. Great Lakes area in the early 1980s.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Population in Minnesota declined by about 60% between 1942 and the mid-1980s (Cuthbert and Louis 1993).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDS: central Prairie Provinces of Canada (Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, to southeastern British Columbia) south to southern California, western Nevada, southern Idaho, northern Utah, northern and eastern Colorado, central Kansas, western Nebraska, northern Iowa, northwestern Indiana, to eastern Michigan; coastally from northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas), southeastern Texas to southern Alabama; along the Atlantic coast from Long Island to (rarely) South Carolina. WINTERS: central California and Baja California to Oaxaca and Guatemala, casually to Costa Rica; northern Veracruz to western Florida; Virginia to northern Florida; Bahamas and Greater Antilles.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, ON, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Alamosa (08003), Jackson (08057), La Plata (08067)
DE Sussex (10005)
IA Cerro Gordo (19033), Clay (19041), Dickinson (19059), Emmet (19063), Hancock (19081), Palo Alto (19147), Winnebago (19189), Wright (19197)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Lincoln (16063), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
IL Lake (17097), Mchenry (17111)
IN Fulton (18049)*
KS Barton (20009), Stafford (20185)
MI Arenac (26011), Bay (26017), Huron (26063), Mackinac (26097)*, Macomb (26099), St. Clair (26147), Tuscola (26157), Wayne (26163)*
MN Anoka (27003), Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Big Stone (27011), Clearwater (27029), Cottonwood (27033), Douglas (27041), Grant (27051), Hennepin (27053), Jackson (27063), Kandiyohi (27067), Kittson (27069), Lac Qui Parle (27073)*, Lake of the Woods (27077), Lincoln (27081), Lyon (27083), Marshall (27089), Martin (27091), Mcleod (27085)*, Meeker (27093)*, Murray (27101), Nicollet (27103), Otter Tail (27111), Pipestone (27117)*, Pope (27121), Ramsey (27123)*, Redwood (27127), Scott (27139), Stearns (27145), Stevens (27149), Swift (27151)*, Todd (27153), Traverse (27155)*, Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Wright (27171), Yellow Medicine (27173)
MT Beaverhead (30001), Blaine (30005), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Hill (30041), Lake (30047), Lewis and Clark (30049), Petroleum (30069), Phillips (30071), Powell (30077), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Teton (30099)
ND Benson (38005), Bottineau (38009), Burke (38013), Burleigh (38015), Emmons (38029), McHenry (38049), Ramsey (38071), Renville (38075), Sheridan (38083), Towner (38095), Ward (38101)
NE Brown (31017), Cherry (31031), Garden (31069), Grant (31075), Sheridan (31161)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Cape May (34009), Ocean (34029)
NM Chaves (35005)
NY Nassau (36059), Queens (36081), Suffolk (36103)
WA Benton (53005), Franklin (53021), Grant (53025), Lincoln (53043), Walla Walla (53071)
WI Adams (55001), Brown (55009), Buffalo (55011)*, Crawford (55023)*, Dodge (55027), Green Lake (55047), Juneau (55057), Kenosha (55059), Marinette (55075)*, Marquette (55077), Oconto (55083), Vernon (55123)*, Waukesha (55133), Winnebago (55139)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Carbon (56007), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+
04 Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)+, Oconto (04030104)+, Peshtigo (04030105)+, Upper Fox (04030201)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Lake Winnebago (04030203)+, Lower Fox (04030204)+, Lake Michigan (04060200)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+*, Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102)+, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103)+, Lake Huron (04080300)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Detroit (04090004)+*
05 Tippecanoe (05120106)+*
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Sauk (07010202)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Redwood (07020006)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Winnebago (07080203)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Boone (07100005)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+*, Des Plaines (07120004)+*, Upper Fox (07120006)+
09 Des Lacs (09010002)+, Lower Souris (09010003)+, Deep (09010005)+, Moose Mountain Creek-Souris River (09010008)+, Bois De Sioux (09020101)+*, Mustinka (09020102)+, Otter Tail (09020103)+, Buffalo (09020106)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Devils Lake (09020201)+, Upper Sheyenne (09020202)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Thief (09020304)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Madison (10020007)+, Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Teton (10030205)+, Box Elder (10040204)+, Middle Milk (10050004)+, Lodge (10050007)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Lance (10120104)+, Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Upper Lake Oahe (10130102)+, Apple (10130103)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Rock (10170204)+*, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+, Calamus (10210008)+, Little Sioux (10230003)+
11 Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Cow (11030011)+
13 San Luis (13010003)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Animas (14080104)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Blackfoot (17010203)+, Lower Flathead (17010212)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Lower Crab (17020015)+, Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Walla Walla (17070102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast, lays eggs from late May to mid-June. Both sexes incubate usually 3-4 eggs for about 23-24 days. Semi-precocial young are tended by both adults until capable of flight, fledge at 3-4 weeks, remain with parents well into the fall (Byrd and Johnston 1991). Often renests if first nest is lost to tidal flooding. Nests in loose colonies or singly. Colony size along the Atlantic coast is less than 500, up to several thousand in Louisiana (Spendelow and Patton 1988).
Ecology Comments: Breeding: Forage up to 3.2 kilometers from nest (Van Rossem 1933). Nonbreeding: singly or in small loose groups.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates primarily through interior North America. Migratory status in the western Gulf of Mexico? Birds from Atlantic coast breeding population apparently disperse northward, at least to New England, prior to fall migration (AOU 1983).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune
Habitat Comments: Freshwater and salt marshes, in migration and winter also seacoasts, bays, estuaries, rivers and lakes (AOU 1983). Nests on inland lakes and marshes, or on salt marshes (especially on wrack) along the coast. Along the Gulf Coast, commonly nests on dredged material as well as on wrack in salt marshes. At San Francisco Bay, California, commonly nests on old dikes or dredged-material islets in salt evaporation ponds. Nests on floating mass of marsh plants, on muskrat house, or old grebe's nest, or in a depression lined with grasses and pieces of shells. Human-made nesting platforms made of bundles of PHRAGMITES or TYPHA on floating base of styrofoam and wood or tires were readily used for nesting in Wisconsin (see Spendelow and Patton 1988). See Spendelow and Patton (1988) for further information on freshwater nesting habitats. See Cuthbert and Louis (1993) for information on nesting habitat in Minnesota.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Catches flying insects (e.g., dragonflies, caddisflies) or snatches up insects (e.g., dead beetles) off the surface of the water while in flight; dives into water for fishes (Terres 1980).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 37 centimeters
Weight: 158 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Gulls and Terns

Use Class: Adult foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Applies to both adults and juveniles. Evidence of one or more individuals seeking food in suitable habitat. Evidence of prey capture is not a prerequisite, as importance of a given location for foraging may vary temporally with shifting prey.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Scientific basis for assigning foraging separation distances is weak because terns are widespread across the Massachusetts coast and highly mobile. Most gaps in foraging observations likely reflect lack of survey effort.
Date: 10Jan2017
Author: Mostello, C. S.

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting areas and associated nesting-season foraging areas (regardless of how far apart they are), but separation distance pertains to nesting areas (breeding colonies). Thus different breeding occurrences may overlap if birds from different nesting areas forage in the same area. Separation distance is not intended to delineate demographically independent populations or metapopulations (such units would be quite large). Instead, separation distance is a compromise between the high mobility of these birds (see following) and the need for occurrences that are of practical size for conservation/management use.

California Gulls foraged an average of 17.4 kilometers from colony (Baird 1976); maximum foraging distances ranged from 32 to 61 kilometers (Rothweiler 1960, Baird 1976). Ring-billed Gulls foraged an average of 11 km from colony (Baird 1977). Least Terns foraged up to 3-12 kilometers from nests (summarized in Thompson et al. 1997). Forster's Terns has a reported feeding radius of 3.2 kilometers (Van Rossem 1932). Black Terns foraged up to 10 kilometers from nests, over continuous suitable but unoccupied habitat (M. A. Stern, pers. comm. 1998). Caspian terns in a colony at the mouth of the Columbia River: 90% of adults foraged within 21 kilometers (Collis et al. 1999).

Date: 21Jul2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 50 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set such that occurrences are of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences are defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 26Apr2004

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Concentration Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set such that occurrences are of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences are defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 16Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Includes all inland-nesting gulls and terns, in the genera LARUS, STERNA, and CHLIDONIAS.

Use Class: Staging
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of flocks resting, roosting, and/or feeding young at a given location prior to breeding or after breeding has been completed. Staging may occur near the breeding site, preceding or following major migratory movements such as oceanic crossings, or it may occur after individuals have departed on migration, but before they have arrived at their final destination (a "stopover"). Staging may occur at sites also used for breeding, but often does not. Staging habitat may be ephemeral. For Common/Roseate Terns in Massachusetts, a minimum of 100 individuals in appropriate habitat is used.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: In Massachusetts, staging areas are separated somewhat arbitrarily, often by jurisdictional or property boundaries, as are nesting areas for coastal birds.
Date: 10Jan2017
Author: Mostello, C. S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Apr1988
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Jan1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., REVISIONS BY S. CANNINGS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Alvo, R. and M. McNicholl. 1996. COSEWIC status report on the Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, ON.

  • Alvo, R. and M.K. McNicholl. 1996. Status Report on the Forster's Tern. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 31 pp.

  • Alvo, R. and M.K. McNicholl. 1996. Status report on the Forster's Tern STERNA FORSTERI in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 31 pp.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andrle, R. F., and J. R. Carrol, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York. 551 pp.

  • Austen, M.J., H. Blokpoel, and G.D. Tessier. 1996. Atlas of colonial waterbirds nesting on the Canadian Great Lakes, 1989-1991. Part 4. Marsh-nesting terns on Lake Huron and the lower Great Lakes system in 1991. Technical Report Series No. 217, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region, Ottawa. 75 pp.

  • Baird, P. 1976. Comparative ecology of California and Ring-billed Gulls (Larus californicus and L. delawarensis.)Ph.D. dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula.

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