Pecari tajacu - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Collared Peccary
Other Common Names: Catitú, Cateto
Synonym(s): Dicotyles tajacu
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 552761)
Spanish Common Names: Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101426
Element Code: AMALB01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
Image 10867

© Michael Patrikeev

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Pecari
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Theimer, T. C., and P. Keim. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of peccaries based on mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences. Journal of Mammalogy 79:566-572.
Concept Reference Code: A98THE01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pecari tajacu
Taxonomic Comments: Placed in family Dicotylidae by Jones et al. (1992), in Tayassuidae by Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).

Appropriate generic name has been debated. Placed in genus Dicotyles by some authors, genus Pecari by Grubb (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005), and genus Tayassu by Jones et al. (1992). MtDNA data support the recognition of three genera of extant peccaries: Catagonus, Pecari, and Tayassu, with this species in the genus Pecari (Theimer and Keim 1998).

In Arizona, Theimer and Keim (1994) found three mtDNA haplotypes, the frequencies of which varied significantly across geographic regions, probably related to founding events.

Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 19Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S5), New Mexico (S4), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Northern Argentina and northwestern Peru to north-central Texas, northwestern New Mexico (Albert et al. 2004), and Arizona; introduced in Cuba (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: At Welder Wildlife Refuge, Texas, feral hogs may have been involved in reducing herd and group size of peccaries (Ilse and Hellgren 1995).

Short-term Trend Comments: Range has recently expanded northward in the southwestern United States (Albert et al. 2004).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Northern Argentina and northwestern Peru to north-central Texas, northwestern New Mexico (Albert et al. 2004), and Arizona; introduced in Cuba (Grubb, in Wilson and Reeder 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; Sechrest, 2002; Tognelli, 2001


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Hidalgo (35023), Socorro (35053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Playas Lake (13030201)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+
15 Animas Valley (15040003)+, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+*, Cloverdale (15080303)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds throughout year, but in desert areas births are concentrated in the summer rainy season (July or August in Arizona). Litter size is 1-3 (usually 2). Gestation lasts 142-148 days. Young are precocial at birth and follow their mother from the first day or two until they are at least a year old.
Ecology Comments: Travels in socially cohesive groups of two to thirty individuals, may bed down together. At Welder Wildife Refuge, Texas, crude density was 2.0 per sq km; mean annual home range size (95% minimum convex polygon) was 1.76 sq km (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). Group home range size is several hundred acres; herd may defend territiory. Extreme cold may result in considerable mortality.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Seldom abundant in absence of dense, scrubby ground cover. Often in thickets along creeks and washes. In southern Texas, prime habitat was dense scrub cover with succulents (Ilse and Hellgren 1995). On the Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, animals were observed at elevations up to 2,335 m in piñon-juniper and ponderosa pine habitats (Albert et al. 2004). Rests in caves, mine shafts, rock crevices, holes in ground. May visit water hole daily.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Opportunistic omnivore. Eats acorns, tubers, bulbs, fruits and rhizomes, pads or cladophyls of cacti, beans of mesquite, catclaw, figs, eggs of birds and turtles, some carrion. Prickly pear cactus is a preferred food.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Active in early morning, late afternoon, and at night. Activity crepuscular and nocturnal in hot weather; may continue throughout day with short rest periods in winter.
Length: 102 centimeters
Weight: 29500 grams
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: May cause considerable damage to crops. Hunted for meat and hides in much of range.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Each group has a home range of about 0.5-8.0 sq km (summarized in Nowak 1991). Dispersal has not been adequately studied, but clearly these mammals are capable of extensive movements such that dispersal of several kilometers would not be unexpected.

Separation distance is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Unsuitable habitat includes open water.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a moderate home range of 1 square kilometers.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Apr2005
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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