Haldea striatula - (Linnaeus, 1766)
Rough Earthsnake
Other English Common Names: Rough Earth Snake
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Virginia striatula (Linnaeus, 1766) (TSN 174150)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101293
Element Code: ARADB39010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Snakes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Haldea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Virginia striatula
Taxonomic Comments: Molecular data indicate that V. valeriae is closely related to Tropidoclonion lineatum; perhaps the latter should be placed in the genus Virginia, with V. striatula being moved to the resurrected genus Haldea (Lawson 1985); myological data do not conform with the molecular data and perhaps a better arrangement would be to expand the genus Virginia to incorporate T. lineatum (see Lawson 1985).

Based on multi-locus nuclear data, McVay and Carstens (2013) resurrected the genus Liodytes for snakes previously referred to Regina alleni, Regina rigida, and Seminatrix pygaea. They also resurrected the genus Haldea for snakes previously referred to Virginia striatula.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Sep2006
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S4?), Kansas (S2), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S5), North Carolina (S5), Oklahoma (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S2S3), Texas (S5), Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from southeastern Virginia to northern Florida, west to central Texas, northward to central Missouri and extreme southwestern Tennessee (Conant and Collins 1991, Mitchell 1994, Powell et al. 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Werler and Dixon 2000, Ernst and Ernst 2003).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a very large number of occurrences (subpopulations) (e.g., see dot maps in Palmer and Braswell 1995, Werper and Dixon 2000, Trauth et al. 2004). Werler and Dixon (2000) mapped hundreds of collection sites in Texas alone.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This snake is locally common to abundant in many parts of its range (Tennant 1997, Trauth et al. 2004).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Ernst and Ernst (2003) stated that habitat destruction and pesticide spraying have reduced populations of this snake in many areas. Documentation of the effects of persticides appears to be limited to Ferguson (1963), who listed one specimen of V. striatula that was found dead in an area sprayed with heptachlor. Mitchell (1994) noted that some populations in Virginia likely will be lost as a result of projected urbanization. However, on a range-wide basis, no major threats are known. This snake tolerates a good deal of habitat alteration and thrives in many urban areas.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 10 percent over 10 years or three generations.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from southeastern Virginia to northern Florida, west to central Texas, northward to central Missouri and extreme southwestern Tennessee (Conant and Collins 1991, Mitchell 1994, Powell et al. 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Werler and Dixon 2000, Ernst and Ernst 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, KS, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Chautauqua (20019), Cherokee (20021), Crawford (20037)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
11 Caney (11070106)+, Spring (11070207)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small snake.
General Description: See Powell et al. (1994).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from V. VALERIAE by the presence of five supralabials, usually only one preocular, and keeled dorsal scales (Powell et al. 1994).
Reproduction Comments: Gives birth to litter of 2-13 young, late June to mid-September (Fitch 1970).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Forest Edge, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Habitats include rocky hillsides of dry open woods, limestone and sandstone cedar glades, woodland edge, mesic woodland and grassland, pastures, thickly wooded bottomlands, dry and mesic hammocks, pine flatwoods, wooded margins of streams in arid landscapes, swamp borders, gardens, and (often) vacant lots or woodlots in urban areas; this secretive semifossorial snake is usually in areas with moisture, ground cover, and some exposure to sunlight; often is found in rotting stumps or under rocks, logs, trash, loose bark, or other cover (Mitchell 1994, Palmer and Braswell 1995, Ernst and Ernst 2003, Trauth et al. 2004).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly earthworms; also slugs, snails, and small frogs and lizards (Tennant 1984, Collins 1982, Mount 1975).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Active March-October in north (Collins 1982), also during warm weather in winter in Texas (Tennant 1984).
Length: 32 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Colubrid Snakes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that snakes rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh (this barrier does not apply to aquatic or wetland species); densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Data are limited to only a few species, but small colubrid snakes such as Diadophis punctatus (Fitch 1975) and Carphophis amoenus (Barbour et al. 1969, Clark 1970) generally have relatively small home ranges less than, or much less than, 1 ha. However, because even small snakes occasionally move large distances (e.g., up to at least 1.7 km in Diadophis punctatus, Fitch 1975). Also, these snakes tend to be secretive and may be easily overlooked or not recorded in areas where they do in fact occur. It seems unlikely that occupied locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .2 km
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This specs group is a somewhat arbitrary assemblage of small snakes that are believed to be among the most sedentary species of the family Colubridae.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Sep2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Sep2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1981. Handbook of reptiles and amphibians of Florida. Part One: The Snakes. Windward Publishing Company, Miami, Florida. 176 pp.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

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  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

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  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Dundee, H.E., and D.A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 300 pp.

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