Thomomys idahoensis - Merriam, 1901
Idaho Pocket Gopher
Other English Common Names: Idaho pocket gopher
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Thomomys idahoensis Merriam, 1901 (TSN 180225)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101241
Element Code: AMAFC01070
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Geomyidae Thomomys
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Thomomys idahoensis
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in T. talpoides; recognized as a distinct species by Jones et al. (1992), Baker et al. (2003), and Patton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993, 2005).
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Nov1996
Global Status Last Changed: 07Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (15Jan1997)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (S4), Montana (S2S4), Utah (SH), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western U.S.; eastern Idaho, southwestern Montana, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah (Thaeler 1972). Southeastern Idaho and extreme southwestern Montana (Whitaker 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Western U.S.; eastern Idaho, southwestern Montana, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah (Thaeler 1972). Southeastern Idaho and extreme southwestern Montana (Whitaker 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, MT, UT, WY

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Daggett (49009)*, Rich (49033)*, Summit (49043)*, Uintah (49047)*
WY Sublette (56035)*, Uinta (56041)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 New Fork (14040102)+*, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+*, Blacks Fork (14040107)+*, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+*
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Probably similar to T. TALPOIDES which has a gestation period of 19-20 days and produces a litter of 4-7 young.
Ecology Comments: Primarily solitary except during the breeding season. Predators include coyotes, foxes, and owls. Pocket gophers are ecologically important as prey items and in influencing soils, microtopography, habitat heterogeneity, diversity of plant species, and primary productivity (Huntly and Inouye 1988).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Open sagebrush, grassland plains, and subalpine mountain meadows. Fossorial. Prefers soils that are shallower and stonier than those preferred by the partially sympatric THOMOMYS TALPOIDES (Patton, in Wilson and Ruff 1999).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Eats roots, tubers and some surface vegetation. Forages in underground burrows, also above ground at night or on overcast days. Carries food in cheek pouches and stores it in underground chambers.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year.
Length: 200 centimeters
Weight: 80 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Pocket Gophers

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Mapping Guidance: Portions of the EO separated by less than 1 kilometer should be mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: Major water barriers, arbitrarily set at greater than 50 meters wide at low water; and roads greater than 30 meters clearance.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: Home ranges are very small, but dispersal distances are poorly known. Nowak (1999) stated that Thomomys "sometimes wander about 1,000 meters in search of better conditions." The separation distance for suitable habitat is a compromise between the sedentary habits of these mammals and the unlikelihood that two occupied locations separated by less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

THOMOMYS TALPOIDES: home range 0.015 hectares (Banfield 1974). T. BOTTAE: 0.0084-0.0446 hectares, mean 0.025 hectares (males), 0.0023-0.0242 hectares, mean 0.0121 hectares ( females, Howard and Childs 1959). T. MONTICOLA: 0.008-0.012 hectares (Ingles 1952). GEOMYS ATTWATERI: 0.03 hectares (Williams and Cameron 1990).

Even narrow roads have been shown to be a major deterrent to movement in small mammals, and roads greater than 30 meters clearance are rarely crossed (Oxley et al. 1974).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Notes: Covers species in the genera THOMOMYS, GEOMYS, and CRATOGEOMYS.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Apr1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.

  • Beauvais, G.P. and D.N. Dark-Smiley. 2005. Species assessment for Idaho Pocket Gopher (Thomomys idahoensis) in Wyoming. Report prepared for USDI Wyoming Bureau of Land Management by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Clark, Tim W. and Mark R. Stromberg. 1987. Mammals in Wyoming. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas.

  • Durrant, S. D. 1952. Mammals of Utah, taxonomy and distribution. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 6: 1-549.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. 2nd ed. John Wiley, New York. 2 vols.

  • Hall, E. R., and K. R. Kelson 1959. The mammals of North America. Ronald Press. 2 vols.

  • Howard, W. E., and H. E. Childs, Jr. 1959. Ecology of pocket gophers with emphasis on Thomomys bottae mewa. Hilgardia 29:277-358.

  • Huntly, N., and R. Inouye. 1988. Pocket gophers in ecosystems: patterns and mechanisms. BioScience 38:786-793.

  • Ingles, L. G. 1952. The ecology of the mountain pocket gopher, Thomomys monticola. Ecology 33:87-95.

  • Jensen, J. N. 1965. The mammals of Rich County, Utah. M. S. thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. v + 130 pp.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Larrison, E.J. and D.R. Johnson. 1981. Mammals of Idaho. The University of Idaho Press, Moscow.

  • Long, C.A. 1965. The mammals of Wyoming. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 14: 493-758.

  • McGee, M., D.A. Keinath, and G.P. Beauvais. 2002. Survey for rare vertebrates in the Pinedale Field Office of the USDI Bureau of Land Management (Wyoming). Unpublished report prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management - Wyoming State Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database - University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. Sixth edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes, 1,936 pp.

  • Oxley, D. J., M. B. Fenton and G. R. Carmody. 1974. The effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 11: 51-59.

  • Thaeler, C. S., Jr. Taxonomic status of the pocket gophers, Thomomys idahoensis and Thomomys pygmaeus (Rodentia, Geomyidae). J. Mammal. 53: 417-428.

  • Thaeler, C.S. Jr. 1972. Taxonomic status of the pocket gophers, THOMOMYS IDAHOENSIS and THOMOMYS PYGMAEUS (Rodentia, Geomyidae). Journal of Mammology 53(3):417-428.

  • Williams, L. R., and G. N. Cameron. 1990. Intraspecific response to variation in food resources by Attwater's pocket gopher. Ecology 71:797-810.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/

  • Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian book of North American mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 750 pp.

  • Zeveloff, S. I. 1988. Mammals of the Intermountain West. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, xxiv + 365 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.