Catharus minimus - (Lafresnaye, 1848)
Gray-cheeked Thrush
Other English Common Names: Grey-cheeked Thrush, gray-cheeked thrush
Other Common Names: Sabiá-de-Cara-Cinza
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Catharus minimus (Lafresnaye, 1848) (TSN 179793)
French Common Names: grive à joues grises
Spanish Common Names: Zorzal Cara Gris
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100959
Element Code: ABPBJ18090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae Catharus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Catharus minimus
Taxonomic Comments: This thrush formerly was placed in the genus Hylocichla (AOU 1983). Bicknell's Thrush (C. bicknelli) was formerly included as a subspecies of C. minimus; raised to full species status by Ouellet (1993) based on differences in morphology, bill and plumage color, vocalizations, and mtDNA. This change was accepted by AOU (1995).

Two subspecies are sometimes recognized: C. m. aliciae (Baird 1858) breeds from Alaska east to Labrador, south to northern Alberta; C. m. minimus (Lafresnaye 1848) breeds on Newfoundland and possibly northern Quebec (Lowther et al. 2001).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread, numerous, secure.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (26Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Alaska (S4S5B), Arkansas (SNA), Colorado (S5B), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S3N), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNRN), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S3N), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (S4?N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S2N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Nebraska (SNRN), New Hampshire (S4B), New Jersey (S3N), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S2N), Pennsylvania (S5N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S4S5B), Labrador (S4B,SUM), Manitoba (S4B), New Brunswick (SUM), Newfoundland Island (S2B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (SUB), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4B), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S4B), Yukon Territory (S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from northeastern Siberia and northern Alaska across northern Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, south to southern Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, southern Mackenzie, northern Alberta (probably), northeastern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, extreme northern Ontario, south-central Quebec, and St. Pierre et Miquelon (Ouellet 1993, AOU 1995). During the northern winter, the species occurs mostly in northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and western Amazonian Brazil; perhaps mainly in southern Venezuela and western Amazon basin; Trinidad; rarely north to Panama, casually north to Costa Rica (Ouellet 1993, AOU 1995).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is about 12,000,000 (Rich et al. 2004).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. Species is more likely affected by habitat alteration during nonbreeding season.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Little information on trend is available. Breeding distribution is north of limits of most Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Continue to monitor population trend through use of Breeding Bird Surveys (BBS). Develop techniques to more adequately monitor trends and abundance in northern breeding areas inaccessible through the BBS.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range extends from northeastern Siberia and northern Alaska across northern Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, south to southern Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, southern Mackenzie, northern Alberta (probably), northeastern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, extreme northern Ontario, south-central Quebec, and St. Pierre et Miquelon (Ouellet 1993, AOU 1995). During the northern winter, the species occurs mostly in northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and western Amazonian Brazil; perhaps mainly in southern Venezuela and western Amazon basin; Trinidad; rarely north to Panama, casually north to Costa Rica (Ouellet 1993, AOU 1995).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AK Anchorage (02020), Bethel (CA) (02050), Bristol Bay (02060), Denali (02068), Dillingham (CA) (02070), Fairbanks North Star (02090), Kenai Peninsula (02122), Ketchikan Gateway (02130), Kodiak Island (02150), Lake and Peninsula (02164), Matanuska-Susitna (02170), Nome (CA) (02180), North Slope (02185), Northwest Arctic (02188), Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan (CA) (02201), Southeast Fairbanks (CA) (02240), Valdez-Cordova (CA) (02261), Wade Hampton (CA) (02270), Wrangell-Petersburg (CA) (02280), Yukon-Koyukuk (CA) (02290)
NJ Bergen (34003), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011), Mercer (34021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+
19 Southeast Mainland (19010101)+, Prince of Wales (19010103)+, Mainland (19010201)+, Kuiu-Kupreanof-Mitkof-Etolin-Zarembo-Wrangell Isla (19010202)+, Bering Glacier (19010402)+, Icy Strait-Chatham Strait (19010500)+, Upper Copper River (19020101)+, Middle Copper River (19020102)+, Chitina River (19020103)+, Lower Copper River (19020104)+, Eastern Prince William Sound (19020201)+, Western Prince William Sound (19020202)+, Prince William Sound (19020203)+, Lower Kenai Peninsula (19020301)+, Upper Kenai Peninsula (19020302)+, Anchorage (19020401)+, Matansuka (19020402)+, Upper Susitna River (19020501)+, Chulitna River (19020502)+, Talkeetna River (19020503)+, Yentna River (19020504)+, Lower Susitna River (19020505)+, Redoubt-Trading Bays (19020601)+, Kodiak-Afognak Islands (19020701)+, Shelikof Straight (19020702)+, Cook Inlet (19020800)+, Ugashik Bay (19030202)+, Egegik Bay (19030203)+, Naknek (19030204)+, Lake Iliamna (19030206)+, Upper Nushagak River (19030301)+, Lower Nushagak River (19030303)+, Wood River (19030304)+, Togiak (19030305)+, Nushagak Bay (19030306)+, Takotna River (19030403)+, Holitna River (19030404)+, Stony River (19030405)+, Middle Fork Kuskokwim River (19030406)+, Aniak (19030501)+, Kuskokwim Delta (19030502)+, Ladue River (19040102)+, Sixtymile River (19040103)+, Fortymile River (19040104)+, Black River (19040204)+, Grass River (19040206)+, Middle Fork-North Fork Chandalar Rivers (19040301)+, Eagle To Circle (19040401)+, Birch-Beaver Creeks (19040402)+, Yukon Flats (19040403)+, Ramparts (19040404)+, Nebesna-Chisana Rivers (19040501)+, Tok (19040502)+, Healy Lake (19040503)+, Delta River (19040504)+, Salcha River (19040505)+, Chena River (19040506)+, Tanana River (19040507)+, Nenana River (19040508)+, Tolovana River (19040509)+, Kantishna River (19040510)+, Lower Tanana River (19040511)+, Upper Koyukuk River (19040601)+, South Fork Koyukuk River (19040602)+, Alatna River (19040603)+, Kanuti River (19040604)+, Allakaket River (19040605)+, Dulbi River (19040607)+, Koyukuk Flats (19040608)+, Kateel River (19040609)+, Nowitna River (19040702)+, Melozitna River (19040703)+, Ramparts to Ruby (19040704)+, Galena (19040705)+, Anvik River (19040801)+, Upper Innoko River (19040802)+, Lower Innoko River (19040803)+, Anvik to Pilot Station (19040804)+, Yukon Delta (19040805)+, Unalakleet (19050102)+, Norton Bay (19050103)+*, Nome (19050104)+, Imuruk Basin (19050105)+, Shishmaref (19050201)+*, Goodhope-Spafarief Bay (19050202)+*, Selawik Lake (19050301)+, Upper Kobuk River (19050302)+, Middle Kobuk River (19050303)+, Lower Kobuk River (19050304)+, Upper Noatak River (19050401)+, Middle Noatak River (19050402)+, Lower Noatak River (19050403)+, Wulik-Kivalina Rivers (19050404)+, Kotzebue Sound (19050500)+, Killik River (19060302)+, Lower Colville River (19060304)+, Sagavanirktok River (19060402)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A medium-sized thrush.
General Description: Medium-sized thrush, slightly larger than other Catharus thrushes (Lowther et al. 2001). Rather plain, cold-grayish face with indistinct whitish streaks or mottling on ear coverlets. Gray cheek patch is most distinctive trait; gray brown above with a faint and incomplete eye ring. Underparts stark white except where dark brown spots speckle the pale, slightly buffy breast and the flanks and tail are brownish gray (Lowther et al. 2001).
Reproduction Comments: Eggs are laid in June (mostly) and July. Clutch size is 3-6 (usually 4). Incubation, by female, lasts 12-14 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 11-13 days.
Ecology Comments: The only neotropical migrant whose breeding distribution includes northeastern Siberia. Least known of Catharus thrushes due to remote breeding range (Lowther et al. 2001). Shows considerable geographic overlap with four other thrushes, including two congeners, Swainson's Thrush (C. ustulatus) and Hermit Thrush (C. guttatus) (Lowther et al. 2001).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Champion migrant among U.S. small thrushes, making the longest migration and, in some parts of its journey, the most rapid advance (Bent 1949). May follow an elliptical migration route; an easterly trans-Gulf route in fall and a westerly circum-Gulf route in spring (Rappole 1995). Migrates through Central America and the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispagnola, and Trinidad and Tobago (DeGraaf and Rappole 1995). Winters mostly in northern South America, rarely north to Panama, casually north to Costa Rica (Ouellet 1993; AOU 1995). Does not start its northward journey until many other species are well on their way (Bent 1949)

Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Coniferous forest (mainly spruce), tall shrubby areas in taiga, willow and alder thickets near water or above tree line (Ouellet 1993); in migration and winter also in deciduous forest, forest borders, open woodland, second growth, and scrub. Nests from ground level to about 6 m up, in willow, alder, or spruce (Terres 1980).
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Main foods taken include insects and arthropods (Lowther et al. 2001). Primarily a ground feeder, foraging on ground insects and larvae, and on berries (Bent 1949, Kessel 1989). Beetles of many kinds, ants, wasps, bees (not honey bees), caterpillars, and spiders are important animal foods although grasshoppers, sowbugs, and earthworms are occasionally taken. On the tundra, feed primarily on crowberries and blueberries, while further south, these are replaced by blackberries, elderberries, and other fruits available without having to venture too far from cover (Gabrielson and Lincoln 1959). Regularly followed swarms of army ants in Panama (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Length: 18 centimeters
Weight: 33 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Research needed on wintering ecology, habitat use, and behavior (Lowther et al. 2001). Research also needed to document carrying capacities of wintering grounds and stopover points in primary and disturbed habitats, evidence of breeding population declines, and basic non-breeding ecological data (Rappole 1995). Also, research on breeding distribution of Gray-cheeked and Bicknell's Thrush in a possible zone of contact along the northern shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence is needed to better understand species limits, isolating mechanisms, and whether hybridization occurs (Lowther et al. 2001). Banding studies needed to clarify migration patterns and stopover ecology, especially along the East Coast (Lowther et al. 2001).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Jan2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gotthardt, T. A., and G. Hammerson. Reviewed by Steve Matsuoka, USFWS, Anchorage, AK.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 22Feb2006
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Gotthardt, T. A., and G. Hammerson. Reviewed by Steve Matsuoka, USFWS, Anchorage, AK.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists Union. 1995. Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union checklist of North American birds. Auk 112: 819-830.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1995. Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 112:819-30.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andres, B.A. 1999. Boreal Partners in Flight Working Group 1998 annual report. May 1999. Alaska Science Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. Unpubl. 35 pp.

  • Andres, B.A. 1999b. Landbird conservatin plan for Alaska biogeographical regions. Version 1.0. Boreal Partners in Flight Working Group. October 1998. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

  • Andres, B.A., D.L. Brann, and B.T. Browne. 1999. Inventory of breeding birds on local training areas of the Alaska Army National Guard. Final Report. Legacy Resource Management Program. Nongame Migratory Bird Management U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 105pp.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des oiseaux du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 13 pages.

  • Audubon Society. 1981-1985. Breeding Bird Atlas of New Hampshire. (unpublished).

  • B83COM01NAUS - Added from 2005 data exchange with Alberta, Canada.

  • Bailey, A.M. 1948. Birds of arctic Alaska. Popular Series No. 8. Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO. 317 pp.

  • Balda, R. P., and G. C. Bateman. 1971. Flocking and annual cycle of the piñon jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus. Condor 73:287-302.

  • Bent, A. C. 1949. Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull.196. 452 pp., 51 pls.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Braun, M. J., D. W. Finch, M. B. Robbins, and B. K. Schmidt. 2000. A field checklist of the birds of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

  • Cadman, M.D., P.F.J. Eagles and F.M. Helleiner (eds.) 1987. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists and Long Point Bird Observatory. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario. 617 pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, M.C.E. McNall and G.E.J. Smith 1997. The Birds of British Columbia, Vol. 3, Passerines: Flycatchers through Vireos. UBC Press in cooperation with Environ. Can., Can. Wildl. Serv. and B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. 700pp.

  • DICKINSON, MARY B., ED. 1999. FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA, 3RD ED. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 480 PP.

  • DeGraaf, R.M., and J.H. Rappole. 1995. Neotropical migratory birds: natural history, distribution, and population change. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

  • Dunn, E. H., C. M. Downes, and B. T. Collins. 2000. The Canadian Breeding Bird Survey, 1967-1998. Canadian Wildlife Service Progress Notes No. 216. 40 pp.

  • Gabrielson, I. N. and F. C. Lincoln. 1959. The Birds of Alaska. Stackpole, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C.

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