Pararhinichthys bowersi - (Goldsborough and Clark, 1908)
Cheat Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pararhinichthys bowersi (Goldsborough and Clark, 1908) (TSN 553396)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100781
Element Code: AFCJB58010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pararhinichthys
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Stauffer, J. R., Jr., C. H. Hocutt, and R. L. Mayden. 1997. Pararhinichthys, a new monotypic genus of minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) of hybrid origin from eastern North America. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 7:327-336.
Concept Reference Code: A97STA03NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pararhinichthys bowersi
Taxonomic Comments: A hybrid between Rhinichthys cataractae and Nocomis micropogon; morphologically intermediate between these two species. Not a polyploid (Morgan et al. 1984). Goodfellow et al. (1984) believed that electrophoretic data indicate that R. bowersi is a valid species and not an F1 hybrid. Stauffer et al. (1997) redescribed R. bowersi as a valid species of hybrid origin and placed it in a new genus "Pararhinichthys." However, Poly and Sabaj (1998) considered "the evidence used to support the species status of R. bowersi to be inconclusive and, with respect to the electrophoretic data, critically flawed." Poly and Sabaj (1998) concluded that R. bowersi is best considered as an F1 hybrid. Page and Burr (2011) did not recognize this taxon as a valid species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1G2Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25May2007
Global Status Last Changed: 31Mar1999
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Known from about a dozen streams in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland, but populations are very small and not confirmed in several streams recently; habitat is at risk from acid-mine runoff; status as a valid species is doubtful--apparently an F1 hybrid.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Maryland (SX), Pennsylvania (S1), West Virginia (S1S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Monongahela and Greenbrier river systems (Ohio River basin), southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia; possibly in Lake Erie drainage, New York and Ohio; rare (Page and Burr 1991). Only historical evidence exists for occurrence in Lake Erie drainage, Pennsylvania; confirmed recent records from Monongahela River watershed (Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia) and one other Ohio River tributary (West Virginia).

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Reported from about a dozen streams, but not found in several of these during surveys in 1980s.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Always found in extremely small numbers; known from most streams from one to ten individuals; extensive collecting in range has yielded about 70 specimens since 1890.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Species occurs in an area of severe stream acidification due to acid mine runoff; may be threatened by acid rain, flood-control dams.

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and abundance have declined substantially, although the level of decline is not precisely known.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Since populations are very small, it may have been overlooked in some streams. Any high-quality stream in range should be surveyed.

Protection Needs: Maintain water quality, especially via permitting process for coal mining.

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Monongahela and Greenbrier river systems (Ohio River basin), southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia; possibly in Lake Erie drainage, New York and Ohio; rare (Page and Burr 1991). Only historical evidence exists for occurrence in Lake Erie drainage, Pennsylvania; confirmed recent records from Monongahela River watershed (Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia) and one other Ohio River tributary (West Virginia).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MDextirpated, PA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Garrett (24023)*
PA Fayette (42051)
WV Hancock (54029), Preston (54077), Randolph (54083), Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
05 Tygart Valley (05020001), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small fish (minnow).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Habitat Comments: Runs and pools of small to medium, unacidified mountain rivers with moderate current and gravel or cobble substrate.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Determine viability and trends of populations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25May2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bartgis, R., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • BARTGIS, R.L. 1988. LETTER OF 16 FEBRUARY TO A. MOSER, U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE.

  • CAPERTON, W.G., III, J.E. HAMRICK, III, AND P.L. MILES. 1987. VERTEBRATE SPECIES OF CONCERN IN WEST VIRGINIA. WV DEPT. OF NATURAL RESOURCES.

  • COOPER, J.E. 1980. EGG, LARVAL AND JUVENILE DEVELOPMENT OF LONGNOSE DACE, RHINICHTHYS CATARACTAE, AND RIVER CHUB, NOCOMIS MICROPOGON, WITH NOTES ON THEIR HYBRIDIZATION. COPEIA 1980(3):469-478.

  • Chipps, S.R., W.B. Perry, and S.A. Perry. 1993. Status and distribution of Phenacobius teretulus, Etheostoma osburni, and "Rhinichthys bowersi" in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 44(1):47-58.

  • GOODFELLOW, W.L., JR., ET AL. 1982. ELECTROPHORETIC ANALYSIS OF CAMPOSTOMA ANOMALUM, RHINICHTHYS CATARACTAE AND THEIR F1 OFFSPRING. BIOCHEM. SYST. AND ECOL. 10(1):95-98.

  • GOODFELLOW, W.L., JR., ET AL. 1984. BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF "RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI" (PISCES: CYPRINIDAE). COPEIA 1984(3):652-659.

  • Goodfellow, W. L., Jr., et al. 1984. Biochemical assessment of the taxonomic status of "RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI" (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1984:652-659.

  • Morgan, R. P., II, W. L. Goodfellow, Jr., C. H. Hocutt, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1984. Karyotype of NOCOMIS MICROPOGON, RHINICHTHYS CATARACTAE and their supposed hybrid, "RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI" (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1984:990-992.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Poly, W. J., and M. H. Sabaj. 1998. Lack of evidence for the validity of RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI (Cyprinidae). Copeia 1998:1081-1085.

  • RANEY, E.C. 1940. RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI: FROM WEST VIRGINIA A HYBRID RHINICHTYS CATARACTAE X NOCOMIS MICROPOGON. COPEIA 1940(4):270-271.

  • Raesly, R. L. 1992. Status and distribution of rare fishes in the Youghiogheny River drainage in Western Maryland. Final Report. Submitted to Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. Frostburg, MD. 

  • Raney, E. C. 1940c. Rhinichthyes bowersi from West Virginiaa hybrid, Rhinichthyes cataractae x Nocomis micropogon. Copeia 1940:270-271.

  • STAUFFER, J.R., JR. 1986. STATUS OF THE CHEAT MINNOW, RHINICHTHYS BOWERSI, IN THE MONONGAHELA RIVER DRAINAGE. SUBMITTED TO U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE.

  • STAUFFER, J.R., JR., C.H. HOCUTT AND R.F. DENONCOURT. 1979. STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE HYBRID NOCOMIS MICROPOGON X RHINICHTHYS CATARACTAE, WITH A DISCUSSION OF HYBRIDIZATION AS A VIABLE MODE OF VERTEBRATE SPECIATION. AM. MIDL. NAT. 101(2):355-365.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., C. H. Hocutt, and R. L. Mayden. 1997. Pararhinichthys, a new monotypic genus of minnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) of hybrid origin from eastern North America. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 7:327-336.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

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