Oncorhynchus clarkii behnkei - Montgomery, 1995
Snake River Fine-spotted Cutthroat Trout
Other English Common Names: Finespotted Cutthroat Trout
Synonym(s): Oncorhynchus clarkii - Snake River ;Oncorhynchus clarkii ssp. 2
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100675
Element Code: AFCHA0208C
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Montgomery, M. R. 1995. Many rivers to cross: of good running water, native trout, and the remains of wilderness. Simon and Schuster, New York. 254 pp.
Concept Reference Code: N95MON01NACA
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oncorhynchus clarkii behnkei
Taxonomic Comments: Also known as "Snake River cutthroat trout." Heavy stocking of rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout has occurred within the range of the finespotted cutthroat, and finespotted cutthroat have been introduced into the range of the Yellowstone cutthroat; hence, it can be assumed that some hybridization has occurred (Behnke 1992). However, finespotted cutthroats and Yellowstone cutthroats exist without significant hybridization in a puzzling, intermingled natural distribution in certain areas of the Snake River drainage (Behnke 1992). May not be genetically distinctive; under study by Leary and Allendorf at University of Montana.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1T2Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Oct1996
Global Status Last Changed: 17Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Nation: United States
National Status: N1N2 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Idaho (SNR), New Mexico (SNA), Wyoming (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Snake River between Jackson Lake and Palisades Reservoir, Wyoming and Idaho; tributaries of the Snake River from the Gros Ventre River to the Salt River; occurs throughout the Gros Ventre River drainage except in headwater streams where the Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurs; consists of many reproductively isolated stocks; extensively stocked outside native range in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah (Baxter and Simon 1970, Spahr et al. 1991, Behnke 1992).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Spawning tributaries in native range have been altered by erosion, siltation, and irrigation diversions related to agricultural practices (Spahr et al. 1991). An outbreak of nematode parasites caused a decline in the Palisades Reservoir population (Behnke 1992). Vulnerable to overfishing.

Short-term Trend Comments: More abundant today than it was historically; has not declined significantly in native range, and has been established elsewhere (Behnke 1992).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Snake River between Jackson Lake and Palisades Reservoir, Wyoming and Idaho; tributaries of the Snake River from the Gros Ventre River to the Salt River; occurs throughout the Gros Ventre River drainage except in headwater streams where the Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurs; consists of many reproductively isolated stocks; extensively stocked outside native range in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah (Baxter and Simon 1970, Spahr et al. 1991, Behnke 1992).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ID, NMexotic, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
WY Fremont (56013), Lincoln (56023), Sublette (56035), Teton (56039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Abundant small spots over body, concentrated on posterior end and above the lateral line; body primarily yellowish-brown; fins may become orange or red; bright red stripe under each side of lower jaw; generally 7-20 inches in length (Spahr et al. 1991).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other trout primarily in the profuse fine spotting (Behnke 1992).
Reproduction Comments: Native populations spawn in April-May; most spawners are 3-4 years old (Spahr et al. 1991). Some hatchery stocks have been selectively bred for earlier spawning (e.g., December).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Includes both resident and migratory populations; the latter migrate between spawning and nonspawning habitats.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool, Riffle, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Large rivers with swift current; requires clear, cool, well-oxygenated water; adapts well to lakes and reservoirs. Migratory populations move from main rivers to small streams to spawn; resident populations occur in small streams.

Spawns in cold, spring-fed streams less than 12 inches deep with a clean gravel bottom (Spahr et al. 1991). Some fingerlings move to the main river in January or February; others may the shift at age 1 year or older (Spahr et al. 1991).

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Diet includes insects obtained on the bottom or at the surface; large individuals also eat small fishes such as sculpins and crayfish. Opportunistic; able to exploit benthic, limnetic, and surface food sources (Behnke 1992).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Snake River population supports a major sport fishery. Hatchery stocks have been used to create fisheries in various waters outside the native range (Behnke 1992).
Management Summary
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Restoration Potential: Hatchery production has been successful. Has done well when introduced into various lakes, reservoirs, and streams outside the native range. The subspecies is doing well and restoration is not needed.
Management Requirements: Management actions have concentrated on restoration of spawning areas and stocking from hatchery populations (Spahr et al. 1991).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Baxter, G.T. and M.D. Stone. 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 290 pp.

  • Behnke, R. J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. xx + 275 pp.

  • Behnke, R.J. 1979. Monograph of the native trouts of the genus Salmo of western North America. U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management.

  • California Academy of Sciences. 2014. August 2014 -last update. The Catalog of Fishes. Online. Available: http://www.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatsearch.html.

  • Kiefling, J. W. 1978. Studies on the ecology of the Snake River cutthroat trout. Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, Fisheries Technical Bulletin 3, Cheyenne.

  • Montgomery, M. R. 1995. Many rivers to cross: of good running water, native trout, and the remains of wilderness. Simon and Schuster, New York. 254 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Simpson, J. and R. Wallace. 1982. Fishes of Idaho. The University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 238 pp.

  • Smith, G. R., and R. F. Stearley. 1989. The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat trouts. Fisheries (Bethesda) 14(1):4-10.

  • Spahr, R., L. Armstrong, D. Atwood, and M. Rath. 1991. Threatened, endangered, and sensitive species of the Intermountain Region. U.S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah.

  • Varley, J.D. and P. Schullery. 1983. Freshwater wilderness: Yellowstone fishes and their world. Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, Yellowstone National Park, WY. 133 pp.

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