Oxyura jamaicensis - (Gmelin, 1789)
Ruddy Duck
Other English Common Names: ruddy duck
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789) (TSN 175175)
French Common Names: érismature rousse
Spanish Common Names: Pato Tepalcate
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100365
Element Code: ABNJB22010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Waterfowl
Image 7698

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae Oxyura
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oxyura jamaicensis
Taxonomic Comments: O. ferruginea (Andean Duck) formerly considered part of O. jamaicensis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, AOU 1997). The population in the eastern Andes of Colombia is intermediate between jamaicensis and ferruginea and may be of hybrid origin, but Siegfried presented good evidence that it is a semispecies (treated as a race of O. jamaicensis). The various species of oxyura are sometimes regarded as a superspecies (O. leucocephala), but some forms are sympatric and relationships between species are uncertain (Sibley and Monroe 1990). See Livezey (1995) for a phylogeny of the Oxyurini based on morphology.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 21Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (08Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Arizona (S5), Arkansas (S3B,S4N), California (SNRB,SNRN), Colorado (S4B), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S5N), District of Columbia (S3S4N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S2), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S1B), Iowa (S2B,S4N), Kansas (S1B,S3N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S1S2N), Maryland (S3N), Massachusetts (S1B,S3N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRB), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNRN,SNRM), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S3), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S4S5B), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNRB), New Mexico (S4B,S5N), New York (S1), North Carolina (S5N), North Dakota (SNRB), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S3N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (S4B), Tennessee (S5N), Texas (S3B,S5N), Utah (S4S5B,S2S3N), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4B,S3N), West Virginia (S3N), Wisconsin (S2N,S3B), Wyoming (S4N,S5B)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S1B,S2S3M), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S1B), Ontario (S4B,S4N), Prince Edward Island (S1B), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: In North America, the northern prairies are the most important breeding areas. Nesting occurs in east-central Alaska (casually), and from central and northeastern British Columbia, southwestern Mackenzie, northern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, and central Manitoba east across southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south to southern California, central Arizona, southern New Mexico, western and southern Texas, southwestern Louisiana, and northern Florida, with scattered, sporatic, or former breeding in several other areas in U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Breeds also in El Salvador, the West Indies (Bahamas [New Providence], Greater Antilles, and the Lesser Antilles south to Grenada). NON-BREEDING: in North America, winters primarily on the Pacific coast (mainly California, especially the Salton Sea area), secondarily on the Atlantic coast, and with about 20% of the population in the interior of the continent (the majority in Texas and Louisiana, plus a concentration along the Mississippi River between Mississippi and Arkansas). Winters southward from southern British Columbia, Idaho, Colorado, Kansas, and the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic coast mainly in Chesapeake Bay and south through Pamlico Sound, south throughout the southern U.S. and most of Mexico to Honduras (sight record for Nicaragua), and throughout the Bahamas. Areas in North America where migrants may concentrate include the Klamath Basin in northern California, Minidoka NWR in Idaho, marshes adjacent to the Great Salt Lake, Malheur NWR in Oregon, Carson Sink in Nevada, and the region extending from North Dakota across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southeastern Michigan to Chesapeake Bay. RESIDENT: in the Antilles and South America. INTRODUCED: established in England. Casual in Hawaii, southeastern Alaska, southern Yukon, and Bermuda. (AOU 1983, Sibley and Monroe 1990). See Bellrose (1980) for further details on the breeding and winter distribution in North America.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Past population declines are attributed to hunting, drought in the breeding range, and drainage of wetland breeding areas.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: In North America, the northern prairies are the most important breeding areas. Nesting occurs in east-central Alaska (casually), and from central and northeastern British Columbia, southwestern Mackenzie, northern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, and central Manitoba east across southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south to southern California, central Arizona, southern New Mexico, western and southern Texas, southwestern Louisiana, and northern Florida, with scattered, sporatic, or former breeding in several other areas in U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Breeds also in El Salvador, the West Indies (Bahamas [New Providence], Greater Antilles, and the Lesser Antilles south to Grenada). NON-BREEDING: in North America, winters primarily on the Pacific coast (mainly California, especially the Salton Sea area), secondarily on the Atlantic coast, and with about 20% of the population in the interior of the continent (the majority in Texas and Louisiana, plus a concentration along the Mississippi River between Mississippi and Arkansas). Winters southward from southern British Columbia, Idaho, Colorado, Kansas, and the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic coast mainly in Chesapeake Bay and south through Pamlico Sound, south throughout the southern U.S. and most of Mexico to Honduras (sight record for Nicaragua), and throughout the Bahamas. Areas in North America where migrants may concentrate include the Klamath Basin in northern California, Minidoka NWR in Idaho, marshes adjacent to the Great Salt Lake, Malheur NWR in Oregon, Carson Sink in Nevada, and the region extending from North Dakota across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southeastern Michigan to Chesapeake Bay. RESIDENT: in the Antilles and South America. INTRODUCED: established in England. Casual in Hawaii, southeastern Alaska, southern Yukon, and Bermuda. (AOU 1983, Sibley and Monroe 1990). See Bellrose (1980) for further details on the breeding and winter distribution in North America.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gem (16045), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Oneida (16071), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085), Washington (16087)
NY Chautauqua (36013), Genesee (36037), Ontario (36069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Niagara (04120104)+, Seneca (04140201)+
05 Conewango (05010002)+
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Payette (17050122)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A duck (stiff-tailed duck).
General Description: A small, chunky, thick-necked duck with a large head, broad bill (blue in breeding male), and long tail that often is cocked upward; male has conspicuous white cheeks, especially when breeding; female and young have a single dark line across the light cheeks; breeding male has bright reddish brown upperparts; nonbreeding males, females, and young are mostly grayish brown; lacks a contrastingly colored speculum (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from the masked duck in that males have white cheeks instead of black and females have a single dark cheek stripe rather than two cheek stripes on each side; ruddy duck lacks the conspicuous white wing patches (visible in flight) of the masked duck.
Reproduction Comments: In much of the range, nest initiation extends from May through July. Clutch size averages about 8 in North America. Incubation, by female, lasts about 23-26 days. In some areas, male often accompanies female and brood. Young can fly at about 6-7 weeks (Manitoba). Probably not all yearling females breed. Generally has high nesting success (Bellrose 1980).

In Manitoba, 5 nests may occur on a 4-acre pothole. In Iowa, nesting density may range from 1 nest/5.5 acres to 1 nest/11 acres in different habitat types (see Bellrose 1980).

Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward across the U.S. primarily March-April, southward late August-October. Generally resident within breeding range in Antilles and South America. Northern breeders winter south to Honduras (Hilty and Brown 1986). See Bellrose (1980) for further details on migration in North America.
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Marshes, lakes and coastal areas; when not breeding, on sheltered brackish and marine coastal areas as well as lakes and rivers (Temperate Zone) (AOU 1983). Nests on freshwater marshes, sloughs, lakes, and ponds, in areas where open water is bordered by dense aquatic vegetation. Nest is a floating structure of marsh plants hidden by growing plants. Often lays eggs in nests of other waterfowl species. May nest at potholes of less than an acre.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet varies with age, season, site (Bellrose 1976). Eats pondweeds, algae, wild celery; seeds of sedges, smartweeds, grasses; also eats insects and their larvae, shellfishes, crustaceans. During the breeding season in North Dakota, ate mainly invertebrates, primarily chironomid larvae and pupae (Woodin and Swanson 1989).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Basically diurnal but appears to migrate mostly at night.
Length: 38 centimeters
Weight: 590 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Diving Ducks and Sea Ducks

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Little information on breeding home ranges; separation distance somewhat arbitrary. Territories not defended in eiders, but goldeneyes defend small (0.18 to 1.45 hectares) territories (Eadie et al. 2000). Philopatry to breeding area strong in Common Eider (Reed 1975, Wakeley and Mendall 1976, Swennen 1990), and Spectacled Eider (Grand and Flint 1997).
Date: 29May2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Staging area, Foraging area, Roosting area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating or staging flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Molting area, Migration staging area, Wintering area, Non-breeding feeding concentration area, Roost
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of molting, staging, or wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds/square kilometer in appropriate habitat. For wintering occurrences, it would be preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Mapping Guidance: Map roosting and feeding areas with separate polygons in same EO.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Fidelity to molting sites (one or two lakes) high in Barrow's Goldeneye (van de Wetering 1997); fidelity to wintering sites probably high in Barrow's Goldeneye (Savard 1985). Separation distance somewhat arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 21Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains all members of the tribes Aythini, Mergini and Oxyurini.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 09Feb1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Wakeley, J. S., and H. L. Mendall. 1976. Migrational homing and survival of adult female eiders in Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:15-21.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • Woodin, M. C., and G. A. Swanson. 1989. Foods and dietary strategies of prairie-nesting ruddy ducks and redheads. Condor 91:280-287.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

  • eBird. 2018. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2018.

  • van de Wetering, D. 1997. Moult characteristics and habitat selection of post-breeding male Barrow's Goldeneye (BUCEPHALA ISLANDICA) in northern Yukon. Technical Report Series No. 296, Canadian Wildlife Service, Quebec Region.

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