Stercorarius parasiticus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parasitic Jaeger
Other English Common Names: Arctic Skua
Other Common Names: Mindrião-Parasítico, Gaivota-Rapineira
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176793)
French Common Names: labbe parasite
Spanish Common Names: Salteador Parásito
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100286
Element Code: ABNNM01020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 10606

© Bruce A. Sorrie

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Stercorariidae Stercorarius
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Stercorarius parasiticus
Taxonomic Comments: Also called arctic skua (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 26Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,NUN,N5M (05Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRN), Alaska (S5B), California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SHN), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (SNRN), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Maine (S2S3N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S3N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNR), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Texas (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4N)
Canada British Columbia (S1B,S4M), Labrador (SUB,SUM), Manitoba (S4B), New Brunswick (S4M), Northwest Territories (SUB), Nova Scotia (SNA), Nunavut (S4S5B,S4S5M), Ontario (S2B), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S3B), Saskatchewan (S4M), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: arctic and subarctic Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Eurasia south near coast to Kamchatka and Sea of Okhotsk. NONBREEDING: Atlantic Ocean from Maine and Great Britain south to South America (Brazil, eastern Argentina) and southern Africa; Pacific from Baja California south to Chile, Australia, New Zealand.

Short-term Trend Comments: See Evans (1984) for status in Greenland, Evans (1984) for status in northwestern Europe.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: BREEDS: arctic and subarctic Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, northern Eurasia south near coast to Kamchatka and Sea of Okhotsk. NONBREEDING: Atlantic Ocean from Maine and Great Britain south to South America (Brazil, eastern Argentina) and southern Africa; Pacific from Baja California south to Chile, Australia, New Zealand.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, ID, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NN, NY, OH, OR, RI, SC, TX, VA, VT, WA
Canada BC, LB, MB, NB, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Fremont (16043), Power (16077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to early June (Harrison 1978); first eggs are laid in mid-June in north-central Alaska (Johnson and Herter 1989). Both sexes incubate usually 2 eggs for 23-26 days (sometimes up to 28 days). Young are semi-precocial and downy, can fly 28-35 days after hatching; fledging period averages 29-30 days. Most fledge in August in northern Alaska. Firsts breeds at age 3-5 years.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates northward along both Atlantic and Pacific coasts; arrives off Florida coast April-May, on nesting grounds late May-early June. Migrates off Costa Rica August-October and late March-April, principally off Pacific coast (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Fall migration in northern Alaska begins in early September; most have departed by mid-September; nonbreeders may depart earlier (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore, Pelagic
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Habitat Comments: NON-BREEDING: mostly pelagic, less frequently along seacoasts, casually on large inland bodies of water (AOU 1983).

BREEDING: Nests on barren and dwarf-shrub coastal tundra; in shallow depression on the ground; generally on mound or slight rise in low wet tundra.

Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Diet includes small mammals, various birds (ducks, shorebirds, passerines), bird eggs, fishes, and invertebrates (e.g., GAMMARUS); aggressively chases and takes fishes from other birds (Terres 1980; Belisle and Giroux 1995, Condor 97:771-781).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 48 centimeters
Weight: 508 grams
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Hunted by Greenlanders in summer (Evans 1984).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Two types of breeding populations: those that are primarily hunters (e.g. arctic North America) and those that are primarily kleptoparasites (most breeders in northeastern Atlantic; Wiley and Lee 1999). Hunting populations space nests 0.9 to 7.3 kilometers apart; kleptoparasites nest in loose colonies (Wiley and Lee 1999). Loose colonies in Norway surrounded by areas where pairs defend much larger territories (0.4-0.6 pairs/square kilometer; Wiley and Lee 1999).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .9 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Hunting populations in arctic North America space nests at least 0.9 kilometres apart (Wiley and Lee 1999).
Date: 06Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating birds (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 25 birds regularly occur for more than 7 days per year would be deemed EO. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 15 km
Separation Justification: Distance arbitrary; occurrences based primarily on concentrations of migrating birds, rather than by distinct populations.
Date: 17Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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