Ochotona collaris - (Nelson, 1893)
Collared Pika
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ochotona collaris (Nelson, 1893) (TSN 180108)
French Common Names: pica à collier
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100243
Element Code: AMAEA01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Lagomorpha Ochotonidae Ochotona
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ochotona collaris
Taxonomic Comments: Has been regarded as conspecific with O. princeps or O. alpina by some authors; regarded as a distinct species by Hall (1981), Jones et al. (1992), and Hoffmann and Smith (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 05Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (13Apr2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4), Northwest Territories (S3), Yukon Territory (S3)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (03Feb2017)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (25Nov2011)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This small rabbit-relative is a Beringian relict that is restricted to talus slopes in alpine areas in northern west British Columbia, Yukon, and Northwest Territories. This region comprises over half the global range of this species, and is witnessing climate-driven shifts in habitat, temperature, and precipitation at faster rates than elsewhere in Canada. A demonstrated sensitivity to climate variability, coupled with poor dispersal ability and the naturally fragmented nature of its populations, heightens the vulnerability of this small mammal to climate change. The species is well-studied in a very limited portion of its range, but baseline information on population trends at the range level, and a clear understanding of the extent and severity of climate impacts to this species and its habitat in the coming decades is limited. However, the best available information suggests that this species may be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, including concomitant increases in precipitation variability, leading to reductions in habitat availability. The potential of negative impacts of climate change to the persistence of this species over the long term is substantial.

Status history: Designated Special Concern in November 2011.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mountains of central and southern Alaska from Yukon-Tanana uplands and Chigmit Mountains to head of Lynn Canal near Skagway; in Canada from Richardson Mountains, Yukon and Mackenzie, south to northwestern British Columbia and west to near Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories. Sight records for Brooks Range, Alaska.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mountains of central and southern Alaska from Yukon-Tanana uplands and Chigmit Mountains to head of Lynn Canal near Skagway; in Canada from Richardson Mountains, Yukon and Mackenzie, south to northwestern British Columbia and west to near Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories. Sight records for Brooks Range, Alaska.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK
Canada BC, NT, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding apparently peaks May-early June. Gestation lasts about 30 days. Produces 1 or 2 litters of 2-6 young, May-September. Young reach adult size in 40-50 days. Females can breed and produce young at about 1 year of age (MacDonald and Jones 1987).
Ecology Comments: May defend home territory about 30 m in diameter (700 sq m). Population density estimated at 6.4-7.2/ha. Ermine (MUSTELA ERMINEA) apparently is the most important predator (MacDonald and Jones 1987).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Alpine, Bare rock/talus/scree
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Mostly in rock slides, talus slopes, and among large boulders, usually near meadows and patches of veg. Usually above timberline but occasionally in forested valleys and near sea level (MacDonald and Jones 1987).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Feeds primarily on grasses and sedges; also eats some forbs (especially DRYAS) as well as the shoots of woody vegetation and dry fecal pellets of Hoary Marmots (MARMOTA CALIGATA). In summer and fall harvests and stores food for winter consumption.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Active throughout the year. Most active in morning and late afternoon (MacDonald and Jones 1987).
Length: 20 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Based on O. princeps, home ranges likely are small (Barash 1973, Kawamichi 1976), but dispersal can be fairly extensive. Peacock (1997) reported one observed 2-km dispersal between talus patches per year, and Hafner and Sullivan (1995) found that pika metapopulations are separated by 10-100 km (maximum dispersal for an individual pika estimated at 10-20 km). To avoid occurrences that are too spatially expansive, we adopt relatively conservative separation distances. Suitable habitat includes talus; unsuitable habitat includes all other terrestrial habitats.
Date: 21Apr2004
Author: Hammerson, G. and S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Apr1993

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Barash, D. P. 1973c. Territory and foraging behavior of the pika (Ochotona princeps) in Montana. American Midland Naturalist 89:202-207.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf

  • COSEWIC. 2011. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Collared Pika Ochotona collaris in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. x + 50 pp. (www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/default_e.cfm).

  • Cook, J.A. et al. 2017. The Beringian Coevolution Project: holistic collections of mammals and associated parasites reveal novel perspectives on evolutionary and environmental change in the North. Arctic 3(3):585-617.

  • Cooley, D., C.D. Eckert, and R.R. Gordon. 2012. Herschel Island?Qikiqtaruk Inventory, Monitoring, and Research Program: Key Findings and Recommendations. Unpublished report. Yukon Parks. Whitehorse, Yukon.

  • Hafner, D. J., and R. M. Sullivan. 1995. Historical and ecological biogeography of Nearctic pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae). Journal of Mammalogy 76:302-321.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hoffman, R. S. and A. T. Smith. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. Pp. 185-211 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

  • Howell, A. H. 1924. Revision of the American pikas (genus Ochotona). North American Fauna 47:1-57.

  • Jones, J. K., Jr., R. S. Hoffman, D. W. Rice, C. Jones, R. J. Baker, and M. D. Engstrom. 1992a. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 1991. Occasional Papers, The Museum, Texas Tech University, 146:1-23.

  • Kawamichi, T. 1976. Hay territory and dominance rank of pikas (Ochotona princeps). Journal of Mammalogy 57:133-148.

  • MacDonald, S. O., and C. Jones. 1987. Ochotona collaris. Mammalian Species 281:1-4.

  • Naughton, D. 2012. The natural history of Canadian mammals. University of Toronto Press, Toronto: 784 pp.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Peacock, M. M. 1997. Determining natal dispersal patterns in a population of North American pikas (Ochotona princeps) using direct mark-resight and indirect genetic methods. Behavioral Ecology 8:340-350.

  • Slough, B. G., and T. S. Jung. 2007. Diversity and distribution of the terrestrial mammals of the Yukon Territory: a review. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 121(2): 119-127.

  • Slough, B.G. 1999. Status recommendation for Yukon mammals and amphibians. IN Hoefs, M. (ed.) Status assessment and proposed "at risk" designations of Yukon's vertebrate species - a technical analysis. Yukon Fish and Wildlife Branch unpubl. report.

  • Stafl, N. 2013. Quantifying the effect of hiking disturbance on American pika (Ochotona princeps) foraging behaviour. M. Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 47 pp.

  • Tlen, D.L. 1993. Kluane Southern Tutchone glossary: english to Southern Tutchone. First edition. The Northern Research Institute, Whitehorse, Yukon. 38 pp.

  • University of Alaska Museum of the North. 2007. ARCTOS database: Fish, amphibian, mammal, bird and reptile collections. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK. Available online at http://arctos.database.museum/SpecimenSearch.cfm. Accessed 14Feb2007.

  • Wildlife Management Information System (WMIS). 2006+. Geo-referenced wildlife datasets (1900 to present) from all projects conducted by Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada.  Available at http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/programs/wildlife-research/wildlife-management-information-services

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/

  • Youngman, P.M. 1975. Mammals of the Yukon Territory. Publications in Zoology, No. 10., National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. 192 pp.

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