Vertigo arthuri - von Martens, 1882
Callused Vertigo
Other English Common Names: Callused Vertigo Snail, callused vertigo snail
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Vertigo arthuri von Martens, 1882 (TSN 76824)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.838196
Element Code: IMGAS20050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Terrestrial Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Pupillidae Vertigo
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Nekola, J.C. and B.F. Coles. 2010. Pupillid land snails of eastern North America. American Malacological Bulletin 28:29-57.
Concept Reference Code: A10NEK01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Vertigo arthuri
Taxonomic Comments: A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group based upon mitochondrial DNA indicate that the informal groupings of Pilsbry (1948), based upon morphological features, are largely supported for 14 of the taxa but not for Vertigo concinnula, Vertigo cristata, Vertigo coloradensis, and Vertigo AK 2 and Vertigo AK 3, which appear to be members of the Vertigo modesta clade. These analyses suggest oversplitting in the traditional taxonomy where Vertigo arthuri, Vertigo brierensis, Vertigo gouldii basidens, Vertigo hubrichti, Vertigo iowaensis, and Vertigo paradoxa may all be morphological forms of the same species (Nekola et al., 2009), however despite complete intergradation of Vertigo hubrichti with Vertigo paradoxa from northeastern Wisconsin through northern Maine, Nekola and Coles (2010) continue to recognize Vertigo hubrichti and Vertigo paradoxa as distinct thus making Vertigo brierensis, Vertigo iowaensis, and Vertigo hubrichti ssp. synonyms of Vertigo hubrichti and Vertigo gouldii basidens a synonym of Vertigo arthuri.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07Apr2010
Global Status Last Changed: 07Apr2010
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species, upon recent taxonomic revision, ranges across boreal North America from the Alaskan interior to western Newfoundland to New York, west to the Black Hills of South Dakota, and south in the Rockies to northern New Mexico, giving it one of the most extensive ranges of any western Hemisphere land snail.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (07Apr2010)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (10Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), South Dakota (S2), Wyoming (S3)
Canada Alberta (SU), British Columbia (S3S4), Manitoba (S3), Newfoundland Island (SNR), Ontario (SNR), Yukon Territory (S2S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: NT - Near threatened

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species, upon revision by Nekola and Coles (2010) ranges across boreal North America from the Alaskan interior to western Newfoundland to New York, west to the Black Hills of South Dakota, and south in the Rockies to northern New Mexico, giving it one of the most extensive ranges of any western Hemisphere land snail. Forsyth (2004) also cites the Yukon, British Columbia, and Alberta eastward and southward to South Dakota and Wyoming. Fossils have been found throughout Illinois, southwestern Indiana, western Kentucky, Missouri, northeastern Kansas, eastern Nebraska and western Iowa (Frest, 1991).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It occurs in eastern Maine (21 of 101 sites as V. paradoxa) largely in the northern part where it was frequent though not abundant (Nekola, 2008). In New York, Hotopp and Pearce (2007) report it (as V. paradoxa) from Washington Co. (CMNH spms.) and recently at Warner Hill on the Massachusetts border. Frest (1991) documented two occurrences (as V. brierensis); one in Allamakee Co. and the other in Clayton Co., Iowa, with very small populations at both sites; and fossil records scattered throughout Illinois. There are 71 sites identified by Frest (1991- as V. hubrichti) from southeastern Minnesota and southwestern Wisconsin through northeastern Iowa east along the Niagaran Escarpment to the Bruce Peninsula and then north to Lake Nipissing and east to Ottowa. Of these, 23 (as V. hubrichti hubrichti) and another 48 (as V. hubrichti variabilis) are in a few counties in Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin- the bulk of these within Winnesheik Co., Iowa; Fillmore Co., Minnesota; and Grant Co., Wisconsin; and only 9 have substantial populations. There may be more occurrences in Minnesota (Frest, 1991); however, a survey of potential Minnesota sites by Ostlie (1991) identified only 6 previously unreported occurrences in Winona and Houston Cos. tentatively attributed to V. hubrichti variabilis. In addition, Nekola (2002) reports 73 locations across 14 counties in Minnesota and Anderson (2004; 2005) reports it from 2 locations in Wind Cave National Park. One live specimen is from northern Minnesota (Frest and Johannes, 1993- as V. arthuri). It was first reported in North Dakota (near Little Missouri River) by Pilsbry (1948). As V. arthuri, it is presently known from 27 sites in the Black Hills in South Dakota and Wyoming. Historically, it was also known from 2 dead, bleached specimens from the Little Missouri River at or near Medora, North Dakota (Frest and Johannes, 1993- as V. arthuri). The South Dakota Natural Heritage Program has recorded 13 extant occurrences (as V. arthuri) and estimates a possible 21 -100 total but it was last surveyed in the Black Hills (South Dakota and Wyoming) during 1992 with the exception of 2 of 82 soil samples and 6 area spot searches of Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, in 2002 (Anderson, 2005). Forsyth (2004 and 2005- as V. arthuri) documented it in the Upper Fraser Basin of central British Columbia in two localities (Lac la Hache and Kiskatinaw Provincial Park in the Peace River region). Forsyth (2006) cites near Drumheller and along Highway 40 at Smoky River in Alberta (as V. arthuri). Also, two dead specimens were collected in Alberta by Frest and Johannes (1993- as V. arthuri) who also documented it sporadically in the province as V. paradoxa.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Abundance of individuals (as V. hubrichti) is in the millions (T. Frest, pers. comm,. 1994). In the Black Hills, colonies are generally on the order of several hundred square feet in area (Frest and Johannes, 1993) and hence are rare.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many to very many (41 to >125)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The greatest threats include habitat modifications such as lumbering, mining, or grazing, or any other activities that decrease floral diversity, open the canopy, or increase the possibility of desiccation. Other potential threats include fire suppression, trail construction and maintenance, picnic area construction, road salting, road construction, spring development, stream improvement, pond construction and dredging, and noxious weed treatment. The effects of many of the potential threats can be avoided by conducting these activities at unoccupied locations (Frest and Johannes 1993). Anderson (2004) lists fire, roads, and grazing (lesser) as threats.

The following threats come from a discussion by Frest (1991) (listing V. hubrichti and V. brierensis). The major threat to this vertigo, since it occupies cold and moist areas, is interruption of air and water flow. Another direct threat to this species is animal traffic, as this species occupies very small leaf patches. Grazing, is the single biggest cause of habitat loss for this entire group of snails. Due to this particular species rarity, even casual human use may result in extirpation. Other threats include those that disrupt the physical components of maderate cliffs and algific talus slopes. These threats include physical destruction of the habitat, often in the form of road building, quarrying, etc., and may eliminate entire sites. The filling of upland sinks with trash, soil, etc., disrupts the delicately balanced ecosystem. Presence of agricultural pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers) over time will alter the community and may be directly toxic to the snails. Clearing vegetation in these habitats leads to increased erosion and further isolation of populations. Collecting and research pressures are a problem, particularly on smaller sites. This species, as mentioned previously, occurs in small patches that are highly vulnerable to trampling. Recreational use, such as spelunking or rock climbing, is typically a minor problem, but in certain areas can be devastating. Natural disasters, such as tornadoes, lightning-caused fires, stream cutting and landslides are normally minor, as long as the community is allowed to recover naturally. However, these disasters may become severe if coupled with other ongoing threats.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Specific population trend information is not available, but the range has probably contracted since historical times. According to Frest and Johannes (1993) probably once very widespread in the Black Hills National Forest, now found at relatively few sites.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: There has been some previous decline, historically due to climate change and more recently to changes in land use.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The habitat of this vertigo can be particularily fragile. Land use that disrupts any of the physical characteristics of the habitat, especially water and air flow, will impact the snail populations. Due to the patchy nature of this vertigo's habitat, areas where disturbance has caused local extinctions are not likely to be naturally recolonized.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine Canadian distribution, rangewide abundance, monitor populations to determine trends and effect of threats. More surveys needed especially outside the Black Hills and in Canada.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species, upon revision by Nekola and Coles (2010) ranges across boreal North America from the Alaskan interior to western Newfoundland to New York, west to the Black Hills of South Dakota, and south in the Rockies to northern New Mexico, giving it one of the most extensive ranges of any western Hemisphere land snail. Forsyth (2004) also cites the Yukon, British Columbia, and Alberta eastward and southward to South Dakota and Wyoming. Fossils have been found throughout Illinois, southwestern Indiana, western Kentucky, Missouri, northeastern Kansas, eastern Nebraska and western Iowa (Frest, 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, MN, ND, NM, NY, SD, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NF, ON, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
SD Custer (46033), Lawrence (46081), Pennington (46103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Redwater (10120203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a land snail
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished by structure of teeth (see Anderson, 2004).
Reproduction Comments: Unknown (Anderson, 2004).
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Cliff, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest Edge, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Often in forest habitats including balsam-white spruce forest, white cedar wetland, aspen forest, black ash wetland, maple-basswood forest, jack pine forest, red pine forest, oak forest, sedge meadow, tamarack wetland, wet prairie, and fen habitats (Anderson, 2004).

In Iowa, Frest (1991) listed it (as V. brierensis) as most common on the colder undisturbed and well-forested algific sites, where it occurs characteristically in small patches (often no more than 0.25 square feet in area) of decaying deciduous tree leaves (most often Betula papyrifera and Acer spicatum), often in or immediately in front of vents in otherwise dominantly bryophyte-covered areas (i.e., more open than most portions of the same site). It does not occur in open talus and avoids completely moss- and fern-covered areas, even though these predominate in its immediate habitat in Iowa; occurring more sparsely in similiar situations on the larger maderate cliffs and sparsely in the more forested portions of the large algific sites, particularily along algific portions of cliff bases (as a calciphile) (Frest, 1991).

Vertigo paradoxa was originally considered a forest species that prefers duff soils with a thick organix layer (Nekola, 2003; Anderson, 2004).

Food Comments: Unknown (Anderson, 2004), but herbaceous grazer.
Appears to feed on organic coating of rock surfaces and partly decayed leaves (Frest and Johannes, 2002; Anderson, 2004).

Phenology Comments: Unknown (Anderson, 2004).
Length: .168 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Life history, reproduction, detailed habitat, feeding not known.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include barriers to dispersal such as the presence of permanent water bodies greater than 30 m in width, permanently frozen areas (e.g. mountaintop glaciers) which generally lack land snails (Frest and Johannes, 1995), or dry, xeric areas with less than six inches precipitation annually, as moisture is required for respiration and often hatching of eggs. For the various slugs and slug-like species (families Arionidae, Philomycidae, Limacidae, Milacidae, Testacellidae, Veronicellidae), absence of suitable moisture, except for the most ubiquitous of species such as Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), can serve as a barrier to movement (Frest and Johannes, 1995). Members of these groups tend to have greater difficulty crossing areas of little moisture than other pulmonates. For tree snails (family Bulimulidae [= Orthalicidae]), lack of appropriate arboreal habitat (e.g. distance of greater than 500 m) also serves as a separation barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Burch and Pearce (1990) suggest refuges may be the most important factor limiting terrestrial snail abundance, although the greatest richness of species among carbonate cliff habitats (one of the most diverse in North America) is associated with calcareous, as opposed to acidic, substrates (Nekola, 1999; Nekola and Smith, 1999). The panmictic unit (a local population in which matings are random) is small relative to those of other animal groups because terrestrial snails tend to be more sedentary. Baker (1958) claimed, "long-distance dispersal of terrestrial gastropods is undoubtedly passive" although short distance dispersal is active involving slow, short distance migration under favorable conditions. Long-distance passive migration is not considered when assigning separation distances, as otherwise separation distances for many animals and plants would be made impracticably large. Passive migration of snails on terrestrial mammals, birds, or insects may occur over longer distances may occur across barriers. Passive migration also may occur by wind or by rafting on floating objects (Vagvolgyi, 1975). A third form of passive migration may occur through human activity such as transport as food, with consumed goods, or for biological control of other organisms.

Terrestrial gastropods do not move much usually only to find food or reproduce. Olfaction is the primary sensory behavior utilized to find and move toward a food item (on the scale of cm to m) although Atkinson (2003) found that Anguispira alternata was capable of switching foraging behavior when snails encountered a physical barrier to movement. Fisher et al (1980) reported maximum movement rate of Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758), an introduced pest species in California spreading relatively rapidly (for a snail), to be 20 m in three months (= 6.67 m/month) in an irrigated orchard. Tupen and Roth (2001) reported the movement rate for the same species in an un-irrigated native scrub on San Nicolas Island to be 0.4 km in 12 years (= 33.33 m/month). South (1965) found in dispersal studies of the slug, Deroceras reticulatum, that slugs traveled a mean distance of 1.13 m in seven days indicating this species disperses little throughout its life. Giokas and Mylonas (2004) found mean dispersal and minimal movement distances were very small (16.2 and 5.4 m, respectively) for Albinaria coerulea, with few individuals dispersing longer distances. Even the most extreme dispersal distances, such as 500 m for the giant African land snail Achatina fulica (Tomiyama and Nakane, 1993), do not approach the scale of km. Viable land snail populations generally occupy small areas. Frest and Johannes (1995) report the largest Oreohelix colony they observed was one mile (1.67 km) long and 0.25 miles (0.41 km) wide while the smallest was six feet (183 cm) long and two feet (61 cm) wide.

As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia) possibly due to their hermaphroditic reproduction increasing the chance of new colonization (Pilsbry, 1948). When compared with prosobranch families, pulmonates generally reproduce at smaller sizes and sooner, produce greater numbers of eggs/young, have larger clutch sizes, greater growth rates, and shorter life cycles (Brown, 1991). Further, prosobranchs' requirement of constant moisture for oxygen exchange limits their ability to colonize drier habitats. Suitable habitat for pulmonate groups tends to be more varied and less restrictive than for prosobranch groups. All of these factors contribute to pulmonates greater dispersal capability over prosobranchs, as evidenced by the wider and more varied distribution of pulmonates over prosobranchs. Despite this, separation distance for both groups is set at the minimum one km as most movements are well within this suggested minimum separation distance.

Date: 26May2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Apr2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Dec2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Anderson, T. 2004e. Field guide to Black Hills land snails. Natural History Inventory of Colorado 22: 1-31.

  • Anderson, T. 2004f. Callused vertigo (Vertigo arthuri): a technical conservation assessment. Report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project, September 16, 2004. 33 pp.

  • Anderson, T.K. 2005. Land snail diversity in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. Western North American Naturalist, 65(2): 186-195.

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2003a. Land snails of British Columbia. Online. Available: http://www3.telus.net/rforsyth/index.html (no longer available)

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2004. Land snails of British Columbia. University of British Columbia Press. Vancouver, BC. 176pp.

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2004b. Land Snails of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum: Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 188 pp.

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2005a. Terrestrial gastropods of the Upper Fraser Basin of British Columbia. Living Landscapes, Royal British Columbia Museum: Victoria, British Columbia. 26 pp.

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2005b. Terrestrial gastropods of the Peace River- northern Rockies region of British Columbia. Living Landscapes, Royal British Columbia Museum: Victoria, British Columbia. 23 pp.

  • Forsyth, R.G. 2006. An annotated checklist (based mostly on literature records) and bibliography of the Recent terrestrial Mollusca of Alberta. Unpublished, revised 22 October 2006. 14 pp.

  • Frest, T. 1991a. Summary status reports on eight species of candidate land snails from the Driftless Area (Paleozoic plateau), upper midwest. Final report, contract no. 30181-01366, USFWS Region 3.

  • Frest, T. J. 1993. Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA. 278 pp.

  • Frest, T.J. and E.J. Johannes. 1993. Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming. Unpublished report to the USDA Forest Service Black Hills National Forest and USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, South Dakota. 273 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba Mollusk species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Grimm, F.W. 1996. Molluscs of the alvar arc and the Niagara Cuesta Uplands and Barren Zones. Pages 112-124 in Prceedings of the Leading Edge '95 Conference. Ecosystem Planning Series: Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy

  • Hotopp, K. and T.A. Pearce. 2007. Land snails in New York: statewide distributions and talus site faunas. Final report for contract #NYHER 041129 to the New York State Biodiversity Research Institute, New York State Museum, Albany, New York. 91 pp.

  • Kalas, L. 1981. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Burlington, Ont.: National Water Research Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; unpublished report. 174 + [134] p.
     

  • Nekola, J. 2009. Tiny jewels: An introduction to pupillid taxonomy, ecology, and collection. American Conchologist 37(1):22-27.

  • Nekola, J.C. 2002. Distribution and ecology of terrestrial gastropods in northwestern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, St. Paul, Minnesota. 178 pp.

  • Nekola, J.C. 2008. Land snail ecology and biogeography of eastern Maine. Final report submitted to: Maine Department of Inland Fisheries & Wildlife and the Aroostook Hills and Lowlands Inventory, January 27, 2008. 119 pp.

  • Nekola, J.C. and B.F. Coles. 2010. Pupillid land snails of eastern North America. American Malacological Bulletin 28:29-57.

  • Nekola, J.C., B.F. Coles, and U. Bergthorsson. 2009. Evolutionary pattern and process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Pupillidae) group of minute North American land snails. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53:1010-1024.

  • Nekola, J.C., M. Barthel, P. Massart, and E. North. 1999. Terrestrial gastropod inventory of igneous outcrops in northeastern Minnesota. Final Report: 1998 Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 69 pp.

  • Ostlie, W.R. 1991. Completion of the algific slope/maderate cliff land snail survey in Minnesota. Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN. 61p.

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