Trichophorum planifolium - (Spreng.) Palla
Bashful Bulrush
Other English Common Names: Bashful Clubrush, Few-flowered Clubrush
Other Common Names: bashful bulrush
Synonym(s): Scirpus verecundus Fern.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trichophorum planifolium (Spreng.) Palla (TSN 507802)
French Common Names: trichophore Ó feuilles plates
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136004
Element Code: PMCYP0Q1L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Trichophorum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Scirpus verecundus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Jun1998
Global Status Last Changed: 19Jun1998
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: There are 36 documented occurrences from half of the states within the range of this species, and dozens of county records from states where it is relatively common. The species may be commonly overlooked.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (13Jun2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S2), District of Columbia (SH), Illinois (SH), Kentucky (S1?), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S2), Massachusetts (SNR), Missouri (S3S4), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (S4), New York (S5), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), Vermont (S1), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S1)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01May2000)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation:áMore than 50% decline over the past decade of the few remaining populations due to habitat destruction and alteration within its two remaining areas of occurrence.

Status history: Designated Special Concern in April 1986. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2000.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Trichophorum planifolium (=Scirpus verecundus) occurs from Massachusetts west to Ontario and south to Virginia and Kentucky, with disjunct occurrences in Missouri and southern Illinois.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are approximately thirty-six documented occurrences: Deleware-six, Illinois-one, Kentucky-two, Missouri-sixteen+, Ontario-seven, Vermont-one, West Virginia-two. Sufficiently common to remain untracked in Massachusetts (occurs in eight counties), Connecticut, New York (post-1970 records from two counties, plus many historical locations), Pennsylvania, Ohio (16 counties), and Virginia (30 counties).

Population Size Comments: Many documented populations across the range of the species have several hundred plants. Additional inventory efforts may increase overall numbers.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary limiting factor in the establishment of new colonies appears to be the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor through canopy gaps (Crins 1989). Therefore, the loss of disturbance regimes (fire, etc.) in preferred habitat may threaten existing populations and diminish the establishment of new populations. In addition, competition from other plant associates (principally Carex pensylvanica) may inherently limit the establishment and spread of Trichophorum planifolium (=Scirpus verecundus) (Crins 1989). Habitat destruction or manipulation is a threat to existing populations and habitat; the placement of man-made structures on slopes to control erosion has had significant effects in Ontario. However, erosion of the susceptible soils in which this species grows could also be a threat if large portions of the forest cover are removed from slopes (Crins 1986).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Although habitat has likely been lost in recent years due to conversion, etc., the species appears to be relatively stable throughout its range. The status of the species may be more secure than currently reflected due to difficulty in identification and by being overlooked.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Trichophorum planifolium (=Scirpus verecundus) occurs from Massachusetts west to Ontario and south to Virginia and Kentucky, with disjunct occurrences in Missouri and southern Illinois.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, DC, DE, IL, KY, MA, MD, ME, MO, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Benton (05007), Boone (05009)
DE New Castle (10003)
IL Alexander (17003)*
KY Lee (21129)
MD Baltimore (city) (24510)*, Baltimore County (24005), Carroll (24013)*, Frederick (24021)*, Harford (24025), Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033)*, Queen Annes (24035)*
MO Bollinger (29017), Carter (29035), Dent (29065)*, Douglas (29067), Howell (29091), Iron (29093), Madison (29123), Oregon (29149), Reynolds (29179), Shannon (29203), Texas (29215)*, Washington (29221)
NH Hillsborough (33011), Rockingham (33015)
VT Bennington (50003)
WV Hampshire (54027)*, Jefferson (54037), Pendleton (54071), Pocahontas (54075)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070006)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+*, Shenandoah (02070007)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+*, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+
05 Greenbrier (05050003)+, Upper Kentucky (05100204)+
07 Meramec (07140102)+, Big (07140104)+, Whitewater (07140107)+, Cache (07140108)+*
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, North Fork White (11010006)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Eleven Point (11010011)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Herbaceous perennial to 16 inches tall; grows in dense, low tufts from short rhizomes; stems 3-angled or round, with a single terminal spikelet; spikelet 4-8-flowered, scales oval and blunt-tipped, 3-6 bristles that are as long as the achene.
General Description: An erect, herbaceous perennial clubrush growing in dense, low tufts, arising from short rhizomes. Its stems are 3-angled or round, often wiry, up to 16 in. tall, ending in only 1 spikelet, with an oval-shaped bract having a sharp, slender point equaling or surpassing the spikelet. The spikelet is ovoid, about .2 in. long, with 4-8 flowers. The sheaths at the base of the plant are weathered, shredded, and light brown to reddish-brown in color. There are several leaves, which are dark green, shiny, 1-2 mm wide, and flat. The lower leaves are bladeless, the upper as long as or slightly longer than the stems. The fruit is a brown, 3-sided achene, oblong in shape, about 2 mm long, with a blunt tip. (Gleason 1963, Steyermark 1963, Braun 1967, Fernald 1970, Crins 1989, Tucker 1992).
Technical Description: Cespitose perennial from short rhizomes; stems slender, erect, scabrous on the 3 angles; leaves several, the lower bladeless, the upper elongate, often surpassing the stem, to 1.5 mm wide; spikelet 1, terminal, ovoid, 5 mm, 4-8 flowered; bract erect, ovate, prolonged into a mucro equaling or surpassing the spikelet; scales ovate, the sides brown, the broad green midrib prolonged into a mucro 0.5-1 mm; bristles 3-6, about equaling the achene; achene brown, trigonous, oblong, 2 mm, obtuse. (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Scirpus verecundus may be distinguished from S. hudsonianus by observing the number and character of the bristles. Scirpus verecundus has 3-6 short bristles (2 mm in length) which are round in cross-section and are not white. Scirpus hudsonianus differs by having 6 flat bristles which are white and much longer, reaching a length of 1-3 cm when they are mature. (Gleason 1963, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Scirpus clintonii has many morphological characteristics similar to S. verecundus, including the same bristle characteristics mentioned above, but differs by its scale characteristics. The midvein of the scales of S. verecundus are prolonged into a short, sharp, slender point, 0.5-1 mm long, while the midvein of scales in S. clintonii do not prolong into a point. The close relationship of these two species has been confirmed beyond morphological characteristics by comparing and observing similarities in the structure of achene epidermal cells. (Gleason 1963, Schuyler 1971, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

This species may be confused in the field with other plants, such as Carex artitecta, C. emmonsii and C. pensylvanica which grow in similar habitat and appear vegetatively similar (Steyermark 1963, Crins 1986, Crins 1989, Tucker 1992).

The single spikelet of Scirpus verecundus makes the plant resemble Eleocharis species, but it differs in that a swollen style-base is absent, it has many flat leaves, and the achene characters are not the same (Gleason 1963, Braun 1967).

Ecology Comments: This species flowers before the leaves of the forest canopy develop and may be found in flower or fruit from late April to June (Steyermark 1963, Fernald 1970, Crins 1989, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Scirpus verecundus shows characteristics of a wind-pollinated plant by lacking a showy perianth and nectaries and having stamens and stigmas which are large and exserted. In the flowers, the anthers emerge beyond the scales before receptive stigmas develop (protandrous). Outcrossing of individuals is probably limited due to the low stature of the plants and the varied terrain in which populations may be found. (Crins 1989).

At flowering, the leaves are just beginning to lengthen, and they continue to elongate as the season progresses. The anthers become exserted in early to mid-May. Seed occurs from mid- May into June. The dispersal of seeds occurs from July to mid-August. The leaves and stems become matted by late July which may aid in seed dispersal and the formation of new colonial tufts. If new colonies are formed by this method, then nearby tufts are genetically similar. Even with the supposed genetic similarity, seeds form successfully at high rates. (Crins 1986, Crins 1989).

The establishment of new colonies of Scirpus verecundus may be limited by the amount of light reaching the forest floor through canopy gaps (Crins 1989).

Habitat Comments: Scirpus verecundus occupies an array of habitats including dry fields, clearings, open woods and basic ledges (Fernald 1970, Gleason and Cronquist 1991). However, its primary habitat is that of dry, rocky woods, typically in association with hardwoods (principally oaks and beech).

The habitat as found in particular states is as follows:

Connecticut: Scirpus verecundus is known from dry, rich, rocky woodlands and slopes (often under American beech [Fagus grandifolia] and birch [Betula sp.]) and traprock ridges, sometimes on acidic soils (Tucker 1992, University of Minnesota Herbarium [MIN], CT NDD 1994).

Delaware: The primary habitat of the species in Delaware is second growth and mature oak-beech woodlands, typically on steep, dry, rocky slopes, usually with a northwest exposure. Associated plant species include Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Fagus grandifolia, Hieracium venosum, Hypoxis hirsuta, Kalmia latifolia, Panicum dichotomum, Prunus serotina, Quercus alba, Q. rubra, Rhododendron nudiflora and Vaccinium vacillans. (McAvoy 1992).

Illinois: The species is known from dry woods and upland openings (Herkert 1991).

Kentucky: The two documented occurrences of this species in the state are associated with oak-hickory forests on sandstone slopes in the Cliff Section of the Cumberland Plateau(Medley 1993). One occurrence was located on a bench along a northeast-facing slope near a creek, while a second was above a river on a saddle along a ridge (DB NF 1989).

Maryland: Collection records of the species from Maryland suggest occupied habitat as moist forests, woods and meadows, and along streams (MD NHP 1994).

Massachusetts: A 1915 collection at the University of Minnesota (MIN) herbarium states habitat as being "woods" near Natick.

Missouri: Habitat of Scirpus verecundus in Missouri can be characterized as dry, rocky (over sandstone (Roubidoux), quartz-barite or chert), wooded slopes of ravines, often above streams. Associated plant species include Amianthium muscaetoxicum, Carex artitecta, Carex jamesii, Iris cristata and Trillium pusillum var. ozarkanum. Occurrences have been located at elevations ranging from 500-1,100 feet. (Steyermark 1963, MO NHD 1994).

Ohio: Occupied habitat is oak woods and south-facing exposures (Cusick and Silberhorn 1977).

Ontario: All of the populations in Ontario occur on relatively steep slopes under the cover of red oak (Quercus rubra) in association with Carex pensylvanica (Crins 1989). Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) is often present in the overstory. It seems to prefer sites in which the canopy is not continuous, but in which small gaps occur and the forest floor is subject to considerable sun-fleck activity. Some type of disturbance (selective cutting, fire, trail edges) is usually evident near extant populations. In Ontario, it prefers neutral to slightly acidic, coarse-textured soils developed over highly calcareous parent materials. Cation (K, Mg, Ca) and phosphorous contents at occupied sites vary considerably (Crins 1989).

Overstory associated plant species found at Ontario occurrences include Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Amelanchier arborea, Carpinus caroliniana, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ostrya virginiana, Pinus strobus, Prunus serotina and Quercus rubra. Shrub layer associates include Cornus racemosa, Cornus rugosa, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Prunus virginiana, Rubus strigosus, Symphoricarpos albus, Vaccinium pallidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Some of the understory associates include Carex artitecta, Carex pensylvanica, and Collinsonia canadensis. (Crins 1986, Crins 1989, ONT CDC 1992).

Pennsylvania: The species has been documented from woods and dry, rocky slopes (Rhoades and Klein 1993).

Vermont: The primary habitat of extant and extirpated population is calcareous rocky outcrops and dry slopes (Popp 1992, VT NHP 1992). The single extant occurrence in the state is found in dry-moist oak-maple woods, often on or near ledges near the summit of a hill (@ 800 feet in elevation) (VT NHP 1992).

West Virginia: Two populations (one extant and one historical) have been documented from the state. The historical population was documented from rocky woods at 1300 feet. The extant population persists along a roadside bank at 2700 feet elevation. (WV NHP 1992).

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Preserve designs should include adequate buffer area for management activities. Forested habitats should be managed so that gaps and openings are maintained to allow required sunlight to reach the forest floor. Plant species which compete with Scirpus verecundus should be eliminated from habitats. Occurrences should be protected from threats such as habitat development, erosion, trail creation, and refuse dumping. Monitoring of occurrences should be conducted on a frequent basis to assess population size and vigor, reproductive success, habitat quality, and threats. Research is needed to investigate the ecology of seeds, seedlings, and populations, as well as other aspects of its reproductive biology.
Restoration Potential: Habitats with closed or closing canopies may be restored by creating gaps and openings which allow increased sunlight to the forest floor. At sites where competing plant species exist, the habitat may be restored by using removal methods to eliminate competing plants.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserves should be designed so that adequate buffer area surrounds occurrences. Habitats are often found on steep slopes, and designs should account for disturbances which might create erosion and ultimate habitat degradation.
Management Requirements: Maintenance of canopy gaps within occupied habitats is a prerequisite for this species. In thin-soiled, rocky woodlands, canopy gaps may maintain themselves naturally. If habitat succession appears to be acting to close the canopy, actions to restore or maintain the open canopy may be warranted. This may occur through experimentation with a prescribed burning program, mechanical canopy thinning activity, or other action. If canopy thinning is exercised, care should be taken not to remove large portions of the forest canopy, as soils of habitats are often susceptible to erosion especially if they are on steep slopes as is often the case. It should be noted that very little information exists on proper management actions for this species. It may be best to precede with caution on an experimental, small-scale basis.

Crins (1989) stated that most observed populations in Canada were located in close proximity to disturbed areas (selective cutting, fire, trail edges). Maintenance of a disturbance regime of some sort may be a necessity for long-term viability of populations.

It is also important to ensure that habitat is not destroyed by threats such as development, trail creation and refuse dumping (McKay-Kuja 1992).

Monitoring Requirements: Monitor extant sites on a regular basis (at least once every 2-3 years) and make assessments of threats, habitat quality, population size and vigor, and reproductive success (McKay-Kuja 1992).

Management Programs: There are no management programs known to be in effect for this species.
Monitoring Programs: Baseline data was collected during one season for an Ontario population by students at the University of Toronto. Contact: Dr. R. L. Jefferies. Telephone: (416) 978-3534.
Management Research Programs: No current research for management purposes is known to be underway.
Management Research Needs: Research is needed into the incompatibility systems of this species as well as seed and seedling ecology and population ecology (Crins 1986).

Very little information exists on proper management actions for this species. Populations are often located in close proximity to disturbed areas (selective cutting, fire, trail edges). Research is need to determine the ecological requirements of this species as well as the methodologies required to maintain habitat to meet those requirements.

Additional topics: Synonyms of Scirpus verecundus include Scirpus planifolius Muhl., and Trichophorum planifolium (Sprengel) Palla (Fernald 1948, Palmatier 1952, Steyermark 1963, Braun 1967, Rhoades and Klein 1993).

Common names for Scirpus verecundus include bashful bulrush, club-rush, and few-flowered club-rush (Crins 1989, DB NF 1989, Herkert 1991, Rhoades and Klein 1993).

Range distribution maps for this species may be found in the following sources: Steyermark(1963)(Missouri), Braun (1967), Crins (1986)(Ontario), Crins (1989), Argus and Pryer (1990), NYFA (1990)(New York), Herkert (1991)(Illinois), Harvill et al. (1992)(Virginia), Rhoades and Klein (1993)(Pennsylvania), Cusick (1994).

Illustrations of Scirpus verecundus may be found in the following sources: Gleason (1963), Steyermark (1963), Braun (1967), Fernald (1970), Schuyler (1971)(SEM photos of achene epidermal cells), Crins (1989).

The highly reduced nature of the inflorescence in Scirpus verecundus is potentially useful in studies of the phylogeny of the genus. This species could provide valuable information because evolutionary advancement is often represented by this kind of reduction. (Crins 1989).

This species can occur in rather large populations on relatively steep banks within forests which could be beneficial, along with other plant species, in stabilizing banks (Crins 1989).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Dec1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ambrose, Donn M. (1994); S.L. Neid (1998).
Management Information Edition Date: 27Dec1994
Management Information Edition Author: AMBROSE, DONN M.
Management Information Acknowledgments: We are indebted to all the botanists, ecologists, information managers, and others who took the time to provide the information necessary for the preparation of this and many other Element Stewardship Abstracts.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): DONN M. AMBROSE

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., and K.M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in Canada. Our natural heritage. Canadian Museum Nature, Ottawa. 191 pp. + maps.

  • Ben-Oliel, R., and M.J. Oldham. 2000. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form for Few-flowered Club-rush (Scirpus verecundus). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. 6 pp. + 5 appendices.

  • Bowles, M.L., et al. 1991. Rarely seen endangered plants, rediscoveries, and species new to Illinois. Erigenia 11:27-51.

  • Braun, L.E. 1967. The Monocotyledoneae: cat-tails to orchids. Vol. One. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus, Ohio. 464 pp.

  • COSEWIC 2000. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the bashful bulrush Trichophorum planifolium in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 8 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm).

  • Crins, W. J. 1989. Status of the Few-flowered Club-rush, Scirpus verecundus (Cyperaceae) in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(1):57-60.

  • Crins, W.J. 1985. Conservation Recommendations for Few-flowered Club-rush, SCIRPUS VERECUNDUS Fernald, a Rare Species in Canada. Unpublished report to Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa. 3 pp.

  • Crins, W.J. 1985. Status Report on Few-flowered Club-rush, Scirpus verecundus Fernald: A Rare Species in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. 23 pp.

  • Crins, W.J. 1986. Status report on few-flowered club-rush, Scirpus verecundus Fernald. Unpublished report, Dept. of Biology, Erindale Campus, Univ. of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario. 21pp.

  • Crins, W.J. 1989. Status of the few-flowered club-rush, SCIRPUS VERECUNDUS (Cyperaceae), in Canada. Can Field Nat. 103(1):57-60.

  • Crins, W.J. 1989. Status of the few-flowered club-rush, Scirpus verecundus (Cyperaceae), in Canada. Canadian Field- Naturalist 103(1): 57-60.

  • Cusick, A.W. and G.M. Silberhorn. 1977. The vascular plants of unglaciated Ohio. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey- New Series 5(4): 102.

  • Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF). 1992. Cooperative inventory of endangered, threatened, sensitive, and rare species, Daniel Boone National Forest, Morehead Ranger District. Cooperators: United States Forest Service, The Nature Conservancy, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1948. Notes on Scirpus verecundus. Rhodora 50(599): 248.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. 1970 printing with corrections by R.C. Rollins [of 1950 8th edition]. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1963. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Hafner Publishing Co., Inc., New York. Vol: 1-3.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Harvill, A.M., Jr., T.R. Bradley, C.E. Stevens, T.F. Wieboldt, D.M.E. Ware, D.W. Ogle, G.W. Ramsey, and G.P. Fleming. 1992. Atlas of the Virginia Flora, 3rd edition. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville, VA.

  • Harvill, A.M., Jr., T.R. Bradley, C.E. Stevens, T.F. Wieboldt, D.M.E. Ware, and D.W. Ogle. 1986. Atlas of the Virginia flora. Second edition. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville. 135 pp.

  • Herkert, J., ed. 1991c. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and distribution. Volume 1 - Plants. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield. 158 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Maryland Natural Heritage Program (MDNHP). 1994i. Element occurrence records for Scirpus verecundus. 5 pp.

  • Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalog of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. PhD. dissertation. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

  • Missouri Natural Heritage Database (MONHD). 1994. Element occurrence record for Scirpus verecundus. 26 pp.

  • New York Flora Association (NYFA). 1990. Preliminary vouchered atlas of New York state flora. New York Flora Association, New York State Museum Institute. 498pp.

  • New York Flora Association. 1990. Preliminary vouchered atlas of New York State flora. Edition 1. New York State Museum Institute, Albany. 496 pp.

  • Ontario Conservation Data Centre (ONT CDC). 1992. Element occurrence records for Scirpus verecundus. 10 pp.

  • P. O'Hara. 2001. Preliminary Surveys and Habitat Summaries for Bashful Bulrush, Trichophorum planifoium (Spreng.) Palla at Cootes Paradise in Hamilton, Ontario. Royal Botanical Gardens Science Department. 4 pp.

  • Palmatier, E.A. 1952. The flora of Rhode Island- A list of the native and naturalized vascular plants. Unpublished, Department of Botany, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

  • Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA. 636 pp.

  • Schuyler, A.E. 1971a. Morphological and anatomical differences in leaf blades of three North American aquatic bulrushes (Cyperaceae: Scirpus). Bartonia 41: 57-60.

  • Schuyler, A.E. 1971a. Morphological and anatomical differences in leaf blades of three North American aquatic bulrushes (Cyperaceae:Scirpus). Bartonia 41:57-60.

  • Schuyler, A.E. 1971b. Scanning electron microscopy of achene epidermis in species of Scirpus (Cyperaceae) and related genera. Proceedings of The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123(2): 29-52.

  • Schuyler, A.E. 1971b. Scanning electron microscopy of achene epidermis in species of Scirpus (Cyperaceae) and related genera. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123: 29-52.

  • Seymour, F.C. 1982. The flora of New England. Phytologia Memoirs V. Moldenke and Moldenke, Plainfield, NJ.

  • Smith, T.W., and C.J. Rothfels. 2007. Recovery Strategy for Few-flowered Clubrush/Bashful Bulrush (Trichophorum planifolium (Sprengel) Palla) in Canada. Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources by the Royal Botanical Gardens. Hamilton. vi + 22 pp. (http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca)

  • Smith, Tyler. 2001. Recovery Plan for Few-flowered Club-rush (Trichophorum planifolium) Draft 2.1. Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, unpublished. 25 pp.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Second ed. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy, Science Division, Home Office. 1992. ELLINK Report for Scirpus verecundus. 1 p.

  • Tucker, G.C. 1992. Scirpus (Cyperaceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter of The Connecticut Botanical Society 20(2): 3-10.

  • Vermont Natural Heritage Program (VT NHP). 1992. Element occurrence records for Scirpus verecundus. 3 pp.

  • West Virginia Natural Heritage Program (WV NHP). 1992c. Element occurrence records for Scirpus verecundus. 2 pp.

  • White, D.J. 1999. Update COSEWIC Status Report on Few-flowered Club-rush (Scirpus verecundus). Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 5 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

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NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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