Thamnophis elegans - (Baird and Girard, 1853)
Terrestrial Gartersnake
Other English Common Names: Terrestrial Garter Snake, Wandering Gartersnake, Western Terrestrial Garter Snake, terrestrial gartersnake
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Thamnophis elegans (Baird and Girard, 1853) (TSN 174142)
French Common Names: couleuvre de l'Ouest
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102240
Element Code: ARADB36050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Reptiles - Snakes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Reptilia Squamata Colubridae Thamnophis
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B90COL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Thamnophis elegans
Taxonomic Comments: The systematic relationships among the subspecies of Thamnophis elegans and between T. elegans and T. couchi need further investigation (Nussbaum et al. 1983).

Tanner and Lowe (1989) examined snakes from a small part of the range of subspecies vagrans and proposed two new subspecies, arizonae from the Little Colorado River basin of Arizona and New Mexico and vascotanneri from the Upper Colorado River basin of Utah; these taxa were distinguished only by coloration characteristics that in fact occur in several other geographic areas within the range of subspecies vagrans (e.g., Colorado, Hammerson 1999). Until a thorough study of variation is completed, these newly described subspecies should be regarded as dubious (Hammerson 1999).

Cytochrome b phylogeny does not match the current subspecific classification of T. elegans (Bronikowski and Arnold 2001). A range-wide assessment of genetic and morphological variation is needed.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (02Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Idaho (S5), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (S4), Nevada (S4), New Mexico (S5), Oklahoma (S1), Oregon (S5), South Dakota (S4), Utah (S5), Washington (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (S5), Saskatchewan (S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: The range extends from central British Columbia, central Alberta, and southwestern Manitoba south through all of the western United States (east to western South Dakota, western Nebraska, Colorado, extreme western Oklahoma, and New Mexico) to (disjunctly) northern Baja California (Sierra San Pedro Martir), with many isolated populations around the margins of the main range (Fitch 1983, Rossman et al. 1996, Grismer 2002, Stebbins 2003). Elevational range extends from sea level to 11,000 feet (3,355 meters), or higher in some locations (Hammerson 1999, Stebbins 2003).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by hundreds of occurrences or subpopulations (e.g., see maps in Fitch 1983, Degenhardt et al. 1996, and Hammerson 1999).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000. This snake is very common in many areas.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known. In high-elevation areas of the southern Sierra Nevada in California, introductions of non-native trout apparently have led to declines in populations of amphibians and possibly also of T. elegans, which may depend on amphibians as a primary food resource (and which may occasionally serve as prey for trout) (Matthews et al. 2002). However, Matthews et al. (2002) did not discuss the historical distribution of T. elegans in their study areas, so the significance of extensive trout introductions in the absence of garter snakes from some areas (John Muir Wilderness) is uncertain. Further study is warranted (e.g., in the mountains of Colorado, T. elegans is a versatile feeder [Hammerson 1999], and garter snake populations may not rely strongly on amphibian populations).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, number of subpopulations, and population size probably are relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) The range extends from central British Columbia, central Alberta, and southwestern Manitoba south through all of the western United States (east to western South Dakota, western Nebraska, Colorado, extreme western Oklahoma, and New Mexico) to (disjunctly) northern Baja California (Sierra San Pedro Martir), with many isolated populations around the margins of the main range (Fitch 1983, Rossman et al. 1996, Grismer 2002, Stebbins 2003). Elevational range extends from sea level to 11,000 feet (3,355 meters), or higher in some locations (Hammerson 1999, Stebbins 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, NN, NV, OK, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, BC, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2005


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Graham (04009)
ID Ada (16001)*, Adams (16003), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Lewis (16061), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Valley (16085), Washington (16087)*
OK Cimarron (40025)*
SD Custer (46033), Lawrence (46081), Meade (46093), Pennington (46103)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Angostura Reservoir (10120106)+*, Beaver (10120107)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+
11 Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+*
15 Willcox Playa (15050201)+
16 Middle Bear (16010202)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Birch (17040216)+, Little Lost (17040217)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, East Little Owyhee. Nevada, (17050106)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Jordan (17050108)+, North and Middle Forks Boise (17050111)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+*, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Palouse (17060108)+*, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Pahsimeroi (17060202)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Little Salmon (17060210)+*, Lochsa (17060303)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
General Description: Pale (but not white) stripes on sides of body on second and third scale rows above lateral edges of belly scales; middorsal stripe bright and extends length of body in some areas, stripe dull and fades at midbody in other areas; often two large blackish marks on neck; often irregular black marks on belly; usually eight upper labials on each side of head; narrow dark marks (if any) on upper lips confined to front edge of vertical suture between scales; dorsal scales keeled; anal scale usually singl; usually 21 scale rows at midbody. Total length up to 109 cm but in most areas few exceed 76 cm. Source: Hammerson (1999).
Reproduction Comments: Courtship and mating occur primarily in spring, soon after emergence from hibernation, though late summer sexual activity has been observed in some parts of the range. In the mountains, newborn individuals first appear most often in August and early September; at lower elevations births sometimes occurs as early as mid-July. Litter size usually is fewer than 20.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: This species occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from lowlands to high mountains: grassland, shrubland, woodland, and open areas in forests. It is chiefly terrestrial in most areas, but also aquatic in some locations (e.g., high Sierra Nevada). Often it inhabits wetlands and areas near streams, ponds, and lakes.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Feeds on slugs, worms, snails, leeches, tadpoles, frogs, fish, mice, and occasionally small birds. Also eats insects, and carrion. Some forms capture prey in water, others feed entirely terrestrially (Nussbaum et al. 1983). Depends on amphibians in the high Sierra Nevada, California (Jennings et al. 1992).

At least in some parts of the range of this snake, the rear upper jaw teeth are relatively long and bladelike and apparently function in impaling, holding, and manipulating the prey. The snakes salivary secretions aid in breaking down prey tissues.

Adult Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Diurnal, Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: This snake is inactive during cold winter weather; the duration of the inactive period varies with the local climate. In most areas, activity occurs from March-April to October-November.
Length: 107 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Medium And Large Colubrid Snakes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway or highway with obstructions such that snakes rarely if ever cross successfully; major river, lake, pond, or deep marsh (this barrier pertains only to upland species and does not apply to aquatic or wetland snakes); densely urbanized area dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Available information on movements of colubrid snakes is limited to a small minority of species. These data indicate that nearly all species have home ranges smaller or much smaller than 25 ha (e.g., less than 3 ha, Pituophis catenifer in California, Rodriguez-Robles 2003), with some up to about 75 ha (Heterodon platirhinos, average 50 ha, Plummer and Mills 2000), and the largest up to 225 ha in the biggest colubrids (Drymarchon, summer mean 50-100 ha, USFWS 1998).

Radiotelemetry data for Pantherophis indicate that residents of hibernacula that are 1-2 km apart (with suitable intervening habitat) probably interbreed (Prior et al. 1997, Blouin-Demers and Weatherhead 2002). However, "evidence of genetic structure even over short distances (e.g., 2-20 km) implies that gene flow among rat snake populations can be easily disrupted" (Prior et al. 1997). Loughheed et al. (1999) found evidence of substantial genetic exchange among local hibernacula (< 6 km apart), but gene flow over distances of 10s of km appears to be substantially less. Based on extensive radio-tracking data, Blouin-Demers and Weatherhead (2002) found that home range size of Pantherophis averaged 18.5 ha and ranged up to 93 ha; based on the most mobile individuals, Pantherophis from hibernacula up to 8 km apart can come together for mating. Pantherophis and probably other colubrids exhibit high fidelity to hibernacula and shift even to nearby sites only rarely (Prior et al. 2001).

Many of the several studies that report small home ranges for colubrids did not employ methods (e.g., radio telemetry) suitable for detecting full annual or multi-annual home range size, dispersal, or other long-distance movements, so these may have yielded underestimates of home ranges or activity areas.

At least some colubrids, including medium-sized species such as garter snakes, not uncommonly move between areas up to a few kilometers apart, and several species make extensive movements of up to several kilometers, so separation distances of 1-2 km for suitable habitat are too small for medium-sized and large colubrids.

A separation distance of 10 km for suitable habitat was selected as most appropriate for snakes assigned to this Specs Group because it seems generally unlikely that two locations separated by less than 10 km of suitable habitat would represent distinct occurrences.

For the purposes of these occurrence specifications, upland habitat is regarded as unsuitable habitat for aquatic and wetland snakes. For upland snakes, shallow or patchy wetlands are treated as unsuitable habitat whereas large deepwater habitats (subjective determination) are barriers.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 12Feb2013
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: Separation distance for suitable habitat was changed from 5 km to 10 km based on comments from Dale Jackson (12 Feb 2013).
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alberta Environmental Protection. 1996. The status of Alberta wildlife. Natural Resources Service, Wildlife Management Division. 44 pp.

  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Bronikowski, A. M., and S. J. Arnold. 2001. Cytochrome b phylogeny does not match subspecific classification in the western terrestrial garter snake, THAMNOPHIS ELEGANS. Copeia 2001:508-513.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • Cook, F. 1966. A guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, Department of Natural Resources. Popular Series No. 13. 40pp.

  • Cook, F. R. 1984. Introduction to Canadian amphibians and reptiles. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92.

  • Crother, B. I., J. Boundy, F. T. Burbrink, and J. A. Campbell. 2008. Squamata: Snakes. IN B. I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, pp. 46-65 SSAR Herpetological Circular 37.

  • Degenhardt, W. G., C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. xix + 431 pp.

  • Fitch, H. S. 1983. Thamnophis elegans. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 320.1-320.4.

  • Grismer, L. L. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Baja California including its Pacific islands and islands in the Sea of Cortes. University of California Press, Berkeley. xiii + 399 pp.

  • Hammerson, G. A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. xxvi + 484 pp.

  • Jennings, W. B., D. F. Bradford, and D. F. Johnson. 1992. Dependence of the garter snake THAMNOPHIS ELEGANS on amphibians in the Sierra Nevada of California. J. Herpetol. 26:503-505.

  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus NERODIA. J. Herpetology 21:140-157.

  • Matthews, K. R., R. A. Knapp, and K. L. Pope. 2002. Garter snake distributions in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems: is there a link with declining amphibian populations and nonnative trout introductions? Journal of Herpetology 36:16-22.

  • Nussbaum, R. A., E. D. Brodie, Jr. and R. M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 332 pp.

  • Nussbaum, R.A., E.D. Brodie, Jr., and R.M. Storm. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 332 pp.

  • Rossman, D. A., N. B. Ford, and R. A. Seigel. 1996. The garter snakes: evolution and ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. xx + 332 pp.

  • Russell, A. P., and A. M. Bauer. 1993. The amphibians and reptiles of Alberta. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, and University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta. 264 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Tanner, W. W., and C. H. Lowe. 1989. Variations in THAMNOPHIS ELEGANS with descriptions of new subspecies. Great Basin Nat. 49:511-516.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.