Echinomastus erectocentrus - (Coult.) Britt. & Rose
Red-spine Butterfly Cactus
Synonym(s): Neolloydia erectocentra (Coult.) L.Benson ;Sclerocactus erectocentrus (Coult.) N.P. Taylor
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sclerocactus erectocentrus (Coult.) N.P. Taylor (TSN 505076)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159485
Element Code: PDCAC0J0E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Echinomastus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sclerocactus erectocentrus
Taxonomic Comments: Kartesz (1994 checklist) doesn't recognize varieties in this species but does recognize S. johnsonii. Sometimes placed in genus Echinocactus, Echinomastus, or Neolloydia (FNA 2003). FNA recognizes S. johnsonii and the varieties erectocentrus and acunensis (of S. erectocentrus) as distinct but transfers them to the genus Echinomastus. Morphological and molecular studies by Baker (2007, 2012) support the transfer of E. acunensis, E. arizonicus, and E. erectocentrus into E. johnsonii but transfer them back to Sclerocactus as S. johnsonii var. johnsonii (including E. arizonicus), S. johnsonii ssp. acunensis, and S. johnsonii ssp. erectocentrus (Baker and Porter 2016).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 09Jul1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known only from Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora (Mexico), from perhaps several dozen sites altogether. Threats include drough, climate change, urban development, habitat degradation caused by law enforcement activities, habitat alteration by non-native invasive grasses, plant consumption and seed predation by insects (Moneilema gigas and Yosemitia graciella, respectively), and, potentially in the future, mining.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S3), New Mexico (SNR)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Sclerocactus erectocentrus has an interpreted status of PS (partial status) because Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (treated in Sclerocactus if recognized by Kartesz), is Listed Endangered.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Arizona, Pinal Co and Pima Co. to west Cochise Co., Maricopa Co., Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Mexico in adjacent Sonora.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include drough, climate change, urban development, habitat degradation caused by law enforcement activities, habitat alteration by non-native invasive grasses, plant consumption and seed predation by insects (Moneilema gigas and Yosemitia graciella, respectively), and, potentially in the future, mining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Arizona, Pinal Co and Pima Co. to west Cochise Co., Maricopa Co., Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Mexico in adjacent Sonora.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM

Range Map
No map available.

National Distribution Outside of U.S. & Canada: Mexico

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Maricopa (04013), Pima (04019), Pinal (04021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Middle Gila (15050100)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+, Lower San Pedro (15050203)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Rillito (15050302)+, Lower Santa Cruz (15050303)+, Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir (15070101)+, Tenmile Wash (15070202)+, Rio Sonoyta (15080102)+, Tule Desert (15080103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Erect central spines. Cactaceae.
Reproduction Comments: Flowering begins in early March. This is the first cactus species to bloom in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona (Johnson 1992, see notes in pollination section).
Habitat Comments: Limestone of alluvial fans, flats, and hills in upper desert and in grassland.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Feb2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: LAMBERT, A. (1988), rev. L. Morse (1996), rev. A. Treher (2016)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baker, M. 2007a. A comparison of morphology among populations of Acuña cactus, Echinomastus erectocentrus (J. M. Coulter) Britton & Rose var. acunensis (W. T. Marshall) H. Bravo and its relatives: E. erectocentrus var. erectocentrus, and E. johnsonii (Parry ex Engelm.) E. M. Baxter. Final Report. 26 January 2007. Unpublished report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Baker, M. A., and J. M. Porter. 2016. The use of multivariate analyses of morphological characters and DNA analyses for assessing the taxonomic ranking of rare plant taxa: an example comparing populations of Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis with those of its relatives E. erectocentrus var. erectocentrus and E. johnsonii. pp. 19-61. In: Endangered Species: Threats, Conservation and Future Research. Melinda Quinn (ed.). Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, New York.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Johnson, R.A. 1992. Pollination and reproductive ecology of Acuna cactus, Echinomastus erectrocentrus var. acunensis (Cactaceae). International Journal of Plant Science 153(3):400-408.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

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