Polygala incarnata - L.
Pink Milkwort
Other English Common Names: Procession-Flower
Other Common Names: procession flower
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polygala incarnata L. (TSN 29341)
French Common Names: polygale incarnat
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129073
Element Code: PDPGL020P0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Milkwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygalales Polygalaceae Polygala
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polygala incarnata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Jun1990
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jun1990
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Has an undetermined or rare status in states in northern part of range however, the range is fairly large.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (06Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Iowa (S2), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4?), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S2S3), Michigan (SX), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Jersey (SH), New York (SX), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (SH), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S1)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (27Nov2009)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This annual herb is highly restricted geographically and is present in tallgrass prairie habitats in southwestern Ontario. There are likely four populations with a total of approximately 1800 plants, most of which are found in one population. Threats to all populations include encroachment by woody plants due to fire suppression and invasive species. Habitat conversion to agriculture, housing development, mowing, trampling, drainage and moisture alteration threaten three populations.
Assessment Criteria: B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii).
Status History: Designated Endangered in April 1984. Status re-examined and confirmed Endangered in April 1998, May 2000, and November 2009.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Long Island west to Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Kansas, south to Florida and Texas.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Long Island west to Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Kansas, south to Florida and Texas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MIextirpated, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NYextirpated, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Ashley (05003)*, Benton (05007)*, Craighead (05031)*, Drew (05043)*, Faulkner (05045), Franklin (05047), Izard (05065), Jefferson (05069), Miller (05091), Prairie (05117)*, Pulaski (05119)*, Sebastian (05131), Washington (05143), White (05145)
DE Sussex (10005)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Black Hawk (19013), Boone (19015)*, Buchanan (19019)*, Butler (19023), Cedar (19031)*, Dickinson (19059)*, Emmet (19063)*, Floyd (19067)*, Iowa (19095)*, Jasper (19099), Johnson (19103)*, Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Lucas (19117), Marion (19125)*, Muscatine (19139)*, Palo Alto (19147)*, Poweshiek (19157)*, Story (19169)*, Wayne (19185)
IL Cass (17017)*, Greene (17061)*, Iroquois (17075), Kankakee (17091)*, Lee (17103), Morgan (17137)*, Pope (17151)*
IN Harrison (18061), Washington (18175)
MD Cecil (24015), Charles (24017), Prince Georges (24033), Wicomico (24045), Worcester (24047)
MI St. Clair (26147)*
NJ Burlington (34005)*, Camden (34007)*, Cumberland (34011)*, Gloucester (34015)*, Salem (34033)*
NY Nassau (36059)*
OH Adams (39001), Jackson (39079), Lawrence (39087), Meigs (39105), Pike (39131), Scioto (39145)
PA Chester (42029)*, Lancaster (42071)*
WI Crawford (55023)*, Dane (55025), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Iowa (55049)*, Kenosha (55059)*, Rock (55105)*, Sauk (55111)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Southern Long Island (02030202)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, Lower Potomac (02070011)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
04 Pike-Root (04040002)+*, Birch-Willow (04080104)+*, St. Clair (04090001)+*, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+*
05 Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+*
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, South Skunk (07080105)+*, North Skunk (07080106)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+*, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Crawfish (07090002)+*, Pecatonica (07090003)+*, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+*, Iroquois (07120002)+, Lower Sangamon (07130008)+*, Lower Illinois (07130011)+*, Macoupin (07130012)+*
08 Lower St. Francis (08020203)+*, Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301)+, Lower White (08020303)+*, Upper Saline (08040203)+, Lower Saline (08040204)+*, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205)+*
10 Little Sioux (10230003)+*, Upper Chariton (10280201)+
11 Middle White (11010004)+, Illinois (11110103)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+, Lower Sulphur (11140302)+, Cross Bayou (11140304)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Comments: Dry soil, upland woods, barrens, and prairies. (Gleason and Cronquist).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Sep1986
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ormes, M.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Brownell, V. 1984. Status report on the Pink Milkwort, POLYGALA INCARNATA. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 27 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1983. Status Report on the Pink Milkwort, Polygala incarnata: An Endangered Species in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. 29 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1997. Update Status Report on Pink Milkwort (POLYGALA INCARNATA L.) in Canada. Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 5 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1998. Update COSEWIC status report on the pink milkwort Polygala incarnata in Canada. IN: COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the pink milkwort Polygala incarnata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 1-12 pp.

  • Evers, R.A. 1955. Hill prairies of Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 26:367-446.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 6. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae to Droserceae. Oxford University Press, New York. 496 pp + xxiv.

  • Gillett, J.M. 1968. The Milkworts of Canada. Agriculture Canada Monograph 5. 24 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Macoun J. 1883-1890. Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Parts I-V. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa.

  • Myers, R.M., and R.D. Henry. 1976. Some changes that have occurred in the indigenous flora of two adjoining west-central Illinois counties (Hancock and McDonough) during the last 140 years. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 69:19-36.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Pink Milkwort (Polygala incarnata). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 3 pp + appendices.

  • Schwegman, J.E. 1968. New plant records from southern Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 61:313-314.

  • Schwegman, J.E. and R.H. Mohlenbrock. 1966. Botanical field studies in the southern tip of Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 59:369-372.

  • Taft, J.B. 1990. Managing for pink milkwort in a mesic sand prairie (Illinois). Restor. Manage. Notes 8(2):103-104

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Zaremba, Robert E. 1991. Corrections to phenology list of April 9, 1991.

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