Platanthera hookeri - (Torr. ex Gray) Lindl.
Hooker's Orchis
Other English Common Names: Hooker's Orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria hookeri Torr. ex Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera hookeri (Torr. ex Gray) Lindl. (TSN 43415)
French Common Names: platanthère de Hooker
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134660
Element Code: PMORC1Y0A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera hookeri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Jun2004
Global Status Last Changed: 09Jun2004
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: A plant that has dramatically declined along its southern range, but appears stable within its northern range. There is currently as estimate of 200-300 populations, although up to 500 populations are possible. Population sizes are often small, typically containing 1-25 plants. A large population would have 50 plants. As a plant from a broad range of habitats, this plant has a wide but sparse distribution. This orchid, like a number of orchids, may require limited disturbance that creates light gaps.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (17Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SH), Illinois (SX), Indiana (SX), Iowa (S1), Maine (SNR), Massachusetts (S2?), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SH), New York (S1), Ohio (SX), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (S1), Vermont (S2), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Manitoba (S2S3), New Brunswick (S4), Newfoundland Island (S2), Nova Scotia (S3), Ontario (S3), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: A plant ranging from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, south to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and west to Manitoba, Minnesota, and Iowa.

Area of Occupancy: 2,501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There is an estimate of 200-300 populations of this plant. Possibly more, but not likely more than 500 populations.

Population Size Comments: Many of the populations are very small in size (less than 10 plants). Wisconsin, with known 21 populations, reports an average population size of 4.3 plants per site. With an estimate of 200-300 populations, and generously assuming an average population size of 10 plants, fewer than 3000 plants of predicted.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Many (41-125)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Throughout its southern range, this plants has declined sharply since the the early to mid 1900's. In New York, over 40 populations were known in the 1930's and 1940's. Today, only two populations are known. Connecticut reports 55 historical records with no known records today. The plant seems more stable in its northern range including Wisconsin, Michigan (Upper Peninsula populations), Ontario, Quebec, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: While known from a variety of habitats, this plant seems to prefer secondary growth forest with rich soils.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: A plant ranging from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, south to New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and west to Manitoba, Minnesota, and Iowa.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, IA, ILextirpated, INextirpated, MA, ME, MI, MN, NH, NJ, NY, OHextirpated, PA, RI, VT, WI
Canada MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, Hartford (09003)*, Litchfield (09005)*, New Haven (09009)*, Tolland (09013)*
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Boone (19015)*, Clayton (19043)*, Delaware (19055)*, Dubuque (19061), Fayette (19065)*, Story (19169)*, Winneshiek (19191)*
IN Lake (18089)*, Porter (18127)*
MA Berkshire (25003), Essex (25009)*, Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015)*, Middlesex (25017)*, Worcester (25027)*
NJ Morris (34027)*, Passaic (34031)*, Sussex (34037)*, Warren (34041)*
NY Albany (36001)*, Cattaraugus (36009)*, Cayuga (36011)*, Chautauqua (36013)*, Chemung (36015)*, Chenango (36017)*, Clinton (36019), Columbia (36021)*, Cortland (36023)*, Delaware (36025)*, Erie (36029)*, Essex (36031)*, Livingston (36051)*, Monroe (36055)*, Niagara (36063)*, Oneida (36065)*, Onondaga (36067)*, Ontario (36069)*, Orange (36071)*, Oswego (36075)*, Otsego (36077)*, Rensselaer (36083)*, Saratoga (36091)*, Schenectady (36093)*, Schoharie (36095)*, Sullivan (36105)*, Tioga (36107)*, Tompkins (36109), Warren (36113), Washington (36115)*, Wayne (36117)*, Westchester (36119)*, Wyoming (36121)*
PA Bedford (42009)*, Blair (42013)*, Centre (42027)*, Clinton (42035)*, Erie (42049)*, Huntingdon (42061), Lackawanna (42069)*, Monroe (42089)*, Montour (42093)*, Northampton (42095)*, Schuylkill (42107)*, Sullivan (42113)*, Susquehanna (42115)*, Tioga (42117)*, Wayne (42127)*, Wyoming (42131)*
RI Providence (44007)*
VT Addison (50001)*, Bennington (50003), Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007), Orange (50017), Orleans (50019)*, Rutland (50021), Windsor (50027)
WI Adams (55001)*, Bayfield (55007), Burnett (55013)*, Chippewa (55017)*, Clark (55019)*, Columbia (55021)*, Crawford (55023)*, Door (55029), Douglas (55031), Eau Claire (55035)*, Forest (55041), Grant (55043), Iowa (55049)*, Jackson (55053)*, Juneau (55057)*, La Crosse (55063)*, Lafayette (55065)*, Lincoln (55069)*, Marinette (55075)*, Milwaukee (55079)*, Oconto (55083), Oneida (55085)*, Outagamie (55087)*, Ozaukee (55089)*, Richland (55103)*, Sauk (55111), Shawano (55115)*, Sheboygan (55117)*, St. Croix (55109)*, Taylor (55119), Vernon (55123)*, Vilas (55125)*, Washburn (55129)*, Washington (55131)*, Waukesha (55133)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Concord (01070005)+*, Passumpsic (01080102)+, Waits (01080103)+, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+, White (01080105)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+*, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Westfield (01080206)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Shetucket (01100002)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+, Saugatuck (01100006)+*
02 Upper Hudson (02020001)+, Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Mohawk (02020004)+*, Schoharie (02020005)+*, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Rondout (02020007)+*, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+*, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Raritan (02030105)+*, Upper Delaware (02040101)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+*, Chenango (02050102)+*, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+*, Tioga (02050104)+*, Chemung (02050105)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+*, Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203)+*, Bald Eagle (02050204)+*, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301)+*, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*, Raystown (02050303)+*, Lower Juniata (02050304)+
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+, Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+*, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Oconto (04030104)+, Peshtigo (04030105)+, Wolf (04030202)+*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, Pike-Root (04040002)+*, Milwaukee (04040003)+*, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+*, Cattaraugus (04120102)+*, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+*, Lake Erie (04120200)+*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+*, Upper Genesee (04130002)+*, Lower Genesee (04130003)+*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+*, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+*, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+*, Winooski River (04150403)+, Ausable River (04150404)+*, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+*
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Namekagon (07030002)+*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+*, Black (07040007)+*, Root (07040008)+*, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Eau Claire (07050006)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+*, Turkey (07060004)+, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+*, Lake Dubay (07070002)+*, Castle Rock (07070003)+*, Baraboo (07070004)+*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+*, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Upper Rock (07090001)+*, Crawfish (07090002)+*, Pecatonica (07090003)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*, Chicago (07120003)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
General Description: Hooker's orchid grows up to 10 inches tall from two broadly rounded to widely oblong, thick, green leaves up to 6 inches long that lie flat on the ground. The green flowering stem has no leaves and is topped by an unbranched inflorescence of 10-15 yellowish green flowers on flower stalks that arise at an upward angle from the stem. The flowers are only about 3/4 inch wide with a tongue-shaped lip that curls up at the end and a long spur that angles down at the back.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Jan2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Weldy, Troy W.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Brown, P.M. 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 236 pp.

  • Bruce-Grey Plant Committee (Owen Sound Field Naturalists). [1997]. A Guide to the Orchids of Bruce and Grey Counties, Ontario. Stan Brown Printers Limited, Owen Sound, Ontario. 105 pp.

  • Brunton, D.F. 1986. A Reconnaissance Life Science Inventory of Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park, Kenora District, Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 167 pp.

  • Brunton, D.F., and W.J. Crins. 1992. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Algonquin Provincial Park (Revised). Algonquin Park Technical Bulletin No. 4. The Friends of Algonquin Park, Whitney, Ontario in cooperation with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford University Press, New York. 723 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba vascular plant species list and proposed ranks and rank factors proposed by contractor (Diana Sawatzky).

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. The New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Manitoba Conservation Data Centre. 2018. Vascular Plant Species ranking forms from initial CDC ranking.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • Morris, F. and E.A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 464 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Reddoch, J.M. and A.H. Reddoch. 2007. Population ecology of Platanthera hookeri (Orchidaceae) in southwestern Quebec, Canada. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134(3): 369-378.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Rhoads, Ann F. and Timothy A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania, an Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada, Bulletin number 140.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan Flora, Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 55 and the University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Walshe, S. 1980. Plants of Quetico and the Ontario Shield. Quetico Foundation, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario. 152 pp.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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