Lithospermum latifolium - Michx.
American Gromwell
Other English Common Names: American Stoneseed
Other Common Names: American stoneseed
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Lithospermum latifolium Michx. (TSN 31949)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134896
Element Code: PDBOR0L080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Borage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Boraginaceae Lithospermum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Lithospermum latifolium
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Jul2016
Global Status Last Changed: 22Jul1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: There are over 100 estimated occurrences range-wide, but the species appears to be declining, and its habitat is prime for development.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (07Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (SNR), Georgia (S1), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S4?), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (S2), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (S2), New York (S3?), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S4), South Dakota (S1), Tennessee (SNR), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Ontario (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Lithospermum latifolium is found in the eastern region of the U.S. from New York to Minnesota, south to West Virginia and Missouri (Gleason & Cronquist, 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It is not tracked in several states because of the number of occurrences (at least 160). However in states that track this species more than 50% (43/80) of the occurrences are considered historic.

Population Size Comments: The abundance code is based on the range of occurrences. The noted population is small (less than 1000 plants) but it is not tracked in several states where it is considered too common to track and therefore the true population is likely to be much higher.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Lithospermum latifolium habitat is prime for development, logging, and strip mining. Acid mine drainage has affected one historical site. In one instance this species was infected by a powdery mildew, but it is unknown if this is a threat (Wiegman, P., 1996).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: This element appears to be declining throughout its range. Although this element is considered too common to track in at least eight states, more than 50% (43/80) of the occurrences in states that track it (Kansas, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin) are considered historic.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This element is not believed to be fragile.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Lithospermum latifolium is found in the eastern region of the U.S. from New York to Minnesota, south to West Virginia and Missouri (Gleason & Cronquist, 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, NY, OH, PA, SD, TN, VA, WI, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Walker (13295)
KS Atchison (20005)*, Douglas (20045), Jefferson (20087), Leavenworth (20103), Miami (20121)*, Wyandotte (20209)
MD Allegany (24001), Cecil (24015), Montgomery (24031)*, Washington (24043)
MI Clinton (26037), Gratiot (26057)*, Ingham (26065), Ionia (26067), Kent (26081), Lenawee (26091), Midland (26111), Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123)*, Ottawa (26139)*, St. Clair (26147), Washtenaw (26161)
MO Adair (29001), Cass (29037)*, Putnam (29171), Saline (29195)*, Sullivan (29211), Warren (29219)
PA Allegheny (42003)*, Beaver (42007)*, Bedford (42009), Blair (42013), Fayette (42051), Greene (42059), Juniata (42067), Washington (42125), Westmoreland (42129)
SD Marshall (46091), Roberts (46109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Lower Juniata (02050304)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*
03 Upper Coosa (03150105)+
04 Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+*, Muskegon (04060102)+*, Tittabawassee (04080201)+, Pine (04080202)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Huron (04090005)+, Raisin (04100002)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+*, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+
10 Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+*, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+*, South Grand (10290108)+*, Blackwater (10300104)+*, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Erect pubescent perennial herb up to 1 m with a loosely branched stem, alternate leaves, and greenish-white or yellow flowers.
Technical Description: Stem loosely branched, erect, 5-9 dm high; leaves alternate, ovate or ovate- lanceolate, acuminate, 5-12 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, pinnately veined; calyx-segments longer than the corolla-tube; corolla funnel-form, yellowish-white or pale yellow, 4-6 mm long; nutlets white, shining, globose-ovoid, 4 mm long (Strausbaugh and Core, 1978). Perennial, flowering in May-June.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Corolla greenish-white or yellow; nutlets white. This element differs from the L. officinale in that L. officinale, a weedy Eurasian species, has narrower (6-15 mm) more crowded stem leaves (internodes < 2 cm). A second Eurasian species (L. arvense) has leaves which lack evident lateral veins and dull, brownish nutlets (MI Heritage files; M. Penskar, pers. comm., 1996).
Reproduction Comments: This element flowers and produces nutlets.
Ecology Comments: IL -- Scattered over almost half of the counties in the state (42/102).

IN -- It occurs here on limestone areas and on rocky slopes in dry forested hills.

KS -- Extreme NE section of state; glaciated flood plain sites, in shaded oak-hickory forest. Soils are rich (limestone), moist and or rocky.

MI -- Occurrences are scattered in the central section of the lower peninsula from east to west. EO sites are rich, mesic floodplains with sandy loam alluvium (soil pH = 8). One site has a cover of 90% Acer saccharum and white ash, with a 30% understory cover of prunus virginiana. A second site is 90% Acer nigrum. Other associated species include Allium, Cardamine diphylla, Carex amp., Cornus sp., Matteuccia, Menispermum Parthenocissus, Smilacina racemosa, and Trillium cernuum.

MO -- Occurrences are scattered in the central and northern section of the state from east to west.

NY -- Occurrences are scattered mainly in the central section of the state and including one eastern central county.

OH -- Occurrences are in woodlands and woodland openings in mainly the southern half of the state.

PA -- These sites are dry to moist woods, limestone woods, and thickets; light is filtered and the one site has a SE aspect. Associated species include Acer, Fraxinus, Lindera, Liriodendron, Prunus, Quercus, Staphylea, and Ulmus.

WI -- Shaded Dry to Mesic hardwood forests (some old growth forest >200 years old) along sandstone ridges, gentle slopes, ravines and edges of swampy depressions. Some sites are on clays, silt loams or nigra dolomite and maquoketa shales. Aspects include NE, E, SE, S, and W. Associated plants include: Acer saccharum, Asarum canadense, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Carex amphibola, C. jamesii, C. woodii, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus, Fraxinus americana, Ostrya virginiana, Quercus rubra, Sanicula marilandica, Scutellaria ovata, Silene virginica, Smilacina stellata, Smilax lasionuera, Tilia americana, Trillium flexipes, T. recurvatum, Ulmus rubra, and Uvularia grandiflora.

WV -- Dry and moist woods and thickets (Strausbaugh & Core, 1978).

Habitat Comments: Lithospermum latifolium occurs on sandy loam wooded floodplains and terraces associated with Acer nigra, A. saccharum and Fraxinus americana; it also occurs with cove hardwoods and in rich mesic oak hickory forests; limestone soils which may occur on steep slopes; rich, rocky, moist soils; gently sloping rich loam lakeshore soils. The light is filtered. Noted aspects for slopes with occurrences range from the northeast to the southeast.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Remove non-native invasive species and reroute trails away from occurrence sites.
Restoration Potential: Restoration potential is unknown.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve design should include adequate buffer area surrounding occurrences to allow for management activities including removal of invasive and exotic plant species.
Management Requirements: Unknown.
Monitoring Requirements: Sites that have not been visited within the last 5 years should be revisited.
Monitoring Programs: Population next to Wehr Nature Center, Milwaukee, WI might be monitored.
Management Research Programs: None known.
Management Research Needs: Unknown.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Jul1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Walton, D., WVHP.
Management Information Edition Date: 22Jul1996
Management Information Edition Author: Walton, D. West Virginia Heritage Program, Elkins, WV 26241-0067 (304) 637- 0245

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • CUSICK, A.W. 1985. LITHOSPERMUM (BORAGINACEAE) IN OHIO WITH A NEW TAXONOMIC RANK FOR LITHOSPERMUM CROCEUM FERNALD. MI BOTANIST 24:63-69.

  • Cooperrider, T.S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • GLEASON, H.A. AND A. CRONQUIST. 1963. MANUAL OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK. 810 PAGES.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Larson, B.M.H. 1995. An assortment of new county plant records for southern Ontario: evidence for Murphy's Law. Field Botanists of Ontario Newsletter 8(1): 9-15.

  • Ramcharan, E.K. 1975. Taxonomy of Lithospermum in Ontario. Unpublished M. Sc. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Ontario. 118 pp.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

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