Isotria verticillata - Raf.
Large Whorled Pogonia
Other English Common Names: Purple Fiveleaf Orchid
Other Common Names: large whorled pogonia
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Isotria verticillata Raf. (TSN 43615)
French Common Names: isotrie verticillée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149848
Element Code: PMORC1F020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Isotria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Isotria verticillata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr1984
Global Status Last Changed: 09Apr1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: NH (26Sep2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (S3), Delaware (S3), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (S1), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S3), Maine (SX), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S3S4), Michigan (S2), Mississippi (S3), Missouri (S1S2), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (S4), New York (S3S4), North Carolina (S2S3), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S3), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (S1), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5)
Canada Ontario (SH)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (25Nov2011)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This orchid is known historically from only 3 sites in Ontario, but it has not been seen since 1996 despite searches at two of the three previously known sites. The species requires rich, deciduous or mixed, moist forest on sandy soil with abundant humus; this habitat continues to decline in quality due to trampling and exotic plants and earthworms. It is possible that this species may still be extant in Canada since many orchids are known to have long dormancy periods and often occur in very low numbers.

Status history: Designated Endangered in April 1986. Status re-examined and confirmed Endangered in April 1998, May 2000, and November 2011.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MEextirpated, MI, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bibb (01007), Cherokee (01019)*, Cleburne (01029)*, DeKalb (01049), Etowah (01055), Jackson (01071), Lawrence (01079), Madison (01089)*, Winston (01133)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
FL Gadsden (12039), Washington (12133)
IL Pope (17151)
IN Jefferson (18077)
LA Bossier (22015), Caddo (22017), Jackson (22049), Lincoln (22061)*, Ouachita (22073), Red River (22081), St. Tammany (22103), Union (22111), Webster (22119)*, Winn (22127)
MA Barnstable (25001), Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005), Essex (25009), Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Plymouth (25023), Suffolk (25025)*, Worcester (25027)
ME Androscoggin (23001)*, Cumberland (23005)*, Oxford (23017)*
MI Barry (26015)*, Berrien (26021)*, Calhoun (26025), Eaton (26045)*, Genesee (26049)*, Gratiot (26057)*, Kalamazoo (26077)*, Kalkaska (26079), Kent (26081), Montmorency (26119)*, Newaygo (26123), Saginaw (26145), Van Buren (26159)*, Washtenaw (26161)
MO Butler (29023)*, Oregon (29149), St. Francois (29187), Ste. Genevieve (29186), Stoddard (29207)
MS Attala (28007)*, Calhoun (28013), Carroll (28015), Choctaw (28019), Clay (28025)*, Itawamba (28057)*, Lafayette (28071), Monroe (28095), Montgomery (28097), Neshoba (28099), Pike (28113)*, Smith (28129)*, Tippah (28139), Tishomingo (28141), Webster (28155), Winston (28159)
NH Cheshire (33005), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015)
OK Le Flore (40079), McCurtain (40089)
TX Sabine (48403)
VT Addison (50001), Bennington (50003), Chittenden (50007), Windham (50025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+*, Presumpscot (01060001)+*, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+*, Merrimack (01070002)+, Contoocook (01070003)+, Nashua (01070004)+, Concord (01070005)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Choptank (02060005)+
03 Apalachicola (03130011)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+*, Cahaba (03150202)+, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+*, Town (03160102)+*, Buttahatchee (03160103)+, Tibbee (03160104)+*, Noxubee (03160108)+, Sipsey Fork (03160110)+, Upper Leaf (03170004)+*, Upper Pearl (03180001)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+*, Thornapple (04050007)+, Pere Marquette-White (04060101)+, Au Sable (04070007)+, Pine (04080202)+*, Shiawassee (04080203)+, Flint (04080204)+*, Huron (04090005)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+*, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+*, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+*, Bear (06030006)+
07 Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Bayou D'arbonne (08040206)+, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Castor (08040302)+, Dugdemona (08040303)+*, Upper Big Black (08060201)+, Tangipahoa (08070205)+*
11 Upper Black (11010007)+*, Eleven Point (11010011)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+, Lower Little (11140109)+, Loggy Bayou (11140203)+, Red Chute (11140204)+, Black Lake Bayou (11140209)+, Cross Bayou (11140304)+
12 Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aldrich, James R., et. al. 1986. The Discovery of Native Rare Vascular Plants in Northern Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science 95:421-428.

  • Ambrose, J.D. and J.V. Jalava. 2007. Recovery Strategy for the Large Whorled Pogonia (Isotria verticillata) in Canada, December 2006. In Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa [Draft] v + XX pp.

  • Anderson, A.B. 1990. Improved germination and growth of rare native Ontario orchid species. Pages 65-73 in "Conserving Carolinian Canada: Conservation Biology in the Deciduous Forest Region", edited by G.M. Allen, P.F.J. Eagles, and S.D. Price. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario..

  • Anderson, A.B., and D.M. Britton. 1986. Isotria verticillata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Raf. (Whorled Pogonia) discovered in Oxford County. Plant Press 4(1): 18-19.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Bowles, Marlin L., William J. Hess, and Marcella M. DeMauro. 1985. An Assessment of the Monitoring Program for Special Floristic Elements at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; Phase II Threatened and Special Concern Species. To Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

  • Bowles, Marlin. 1988. A Report of Special Floristic Elements at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore: New Species Monitoring and Update of Selected Existing Populations. To Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

  • Bowles, Marlin. 1990. Report on the Status of Endangered and Threatened Plants of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; Monitoring of Species New to the Lakeshore and Re-monitoring of Selected Species. To Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Effron, M. and E.C. Briggs. n.d. Rediscovery of ISOTRIA VERTICILLATA (Willd.) Raf. (Orchidaceae) in Vermont. Rhodora 88:407-408.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • House, H.D. 1906. Observations upon Pogonia (Isotria) verticillata. Rhodora 7: 19-20.

  • Jones, J., J.V. Jalava and J.D. Ambrose. 2012. Recovery Strategy for the Large Whorled Pogonia (Isotria verticillata) in Ontario. Ontario Recovery Strategy Series. Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. vi + 19 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Klinkenberg, R. 1984. Conservation Recommendations for ISOTRIA VERTICILLATA (Whorled Pogonia) an Endangered Species in Canada. Unpublished report to Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa. 3 pp.

  • Klinkenberg, R. 1984. Status Report on The Whorled Pogonia, Isotria verticillata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Raf.: A Rare Species in Canada. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, London. 39 pp.

  • Klinkenberg, R. 1986. An update on the distribution and status of Isotria verticillata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Raf. (Whorled Pogonia) in Ontario. The Plant Press 4(1): 20.

  • Klinkenberg, R. 1986. Status report on the Large Whorled Pogonia, ISOTRIA VERTICILLATA (Muhl. ex Willd.) Raf.. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario.. 40 pp.

  • Mehrhoff, L.A. 1983. Pollination in the genus ISOTRIA (Orchidaceae). American Journal of Botany 70(10):1444-1453.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V, T, E Species Evaluation Form - Large Whorled Pogonia (Isotria verticillata). Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 4 pp + appendix.

  • Schwegman, J.E. 1968. New plant records from southern Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 61:313-314.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers XIV. Ill. State Mus., Springfield, IL. 89pp.

  • Soper, J.H. 1962. Some genera of restricted range in the Carolinian flora of Canada. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 34(1):3-56.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • White, D.J. 1998. Update Status Report for Large Whorled Pogonia (ISOTRIA VERTICILLATA). Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 4 pp.

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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