Festuca trachyphylla - (Hack.) Krajina
Hard Fescue
Other Common Names: hard fescue
Synonym(s): Festuca brevipila Tracey ;Festuca duriuscula L.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) Krajina (TSN 502613)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160378
Element Code: PMPOA2V1W0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Festuca
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Festuca trachyphylla
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (12Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, IAexotic, ILexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MNexotic, MOexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, PAexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WVexotic
Canada ABexotic, BCexotic, MBexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Sporadically distributed, primarily found in the East, and thought to be only locally abundant. Primarily a species of low-quality disturbed sites.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant
I-Rank Review Date: 08Dec2005
Evaluator: Maybury, K.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eurasia (Weakley 2005).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No evidence of major or moderate changes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Inferred.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Major alterations unlikely but some possiblity of moderate changes in composition in areas where locally common. More data needed.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reports of disproportionate impacts on any particular native species.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Generally a plant of open, disturbed soils, pastures, quarries, fields (e.g., Haines and Vining 1998, Angelo and Boufford 2005, Triassic Park Plant List 2005, Weakley 2005).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Based on Kartesz (1999) range is most of the eastern U.S. west to Iowa and Missouri and a few scattered states in the West.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: Apparently uncommon and local in most of the U.S. except perhaps parts of the northeast. Very rare in Maine (Haines and Vining 1998), known from 16 counties throughout New England (Angelo and Boufford 2005), uncommon in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Virginia (Weakely 2005), only known from one Minnesota county (Choelewa 2002), uncommon in southern California (Chester 2005). However, specimens exist from about two-thirds of New York counties (Weldy and Werier 2005) and noted as "weedy and widely introduced" in the northeastern U.S. by Gleason and Cronquist (1991).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Reported from various dry, open/disturbed places.

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Assumed not expanding rapidly or decreasing.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Could spread to other areas of the western U.S. but possibly limited by moisture(?)

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Planted by humans. Used for erosion control on ski slopes (Hickman et al. 1993).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: No reports of rapid expansion and assumed not declining.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: This is generally a plant of open, disturbed soils, pastures, quarries, fields (e.g., Haines and Vining 1998, Angelo and Boufford 2005, Triassic Park Plant List 2005, Weakley 2005).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Unknown but assumed not more than 3 extremely agressive characteristics.

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Insignificant

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Unknown but assumed not extremely difficult but that some level of managment would be needed to control an established stand.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Unknown but assumed not more than 5 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Unknown but assumed management impacts would not be extremely severe (significant, persistant reductions is native species).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Planted on at least some private lands.

Other Considerations: Assessment includes many assumptions. Note that with current rankings, this species barely makes it into the "Medium" range; Low/Insignificant may be more appropriate with more data.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aiken, S.G. and S.J. Darbyshire. 1990. Fescue Grasses of Canada. Publication 1844/E, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 113 pp.

  • Angelo, R., and D. E. Boufford. 2005 (last update). Atlas of the Flora of New England. Harvard University Herbaria. Online. Available: http://neatlas.huh.harvard.edu/ (accessed 2005).

  • Chester, T. 2005 (last update). The most common non-native plants of southern California. Available: http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/list/most_common_nonnatives.html. Accessed 2005.

  • Cholewa, A.F. 2002. Checklist of the grasses of Minnesota. Adapted from Choelwa, A.F. Annotated checklist of the flora of Minnesota. Available: http://www.cbs.umn.edu/herbarium/Grasses/grass%20text/checklist.htm. Accessed 2005.

  • Darbyshire, S.J. and L.E. Pavlick. 1997. Nomenclature notes on North American grasses. Phytologia 82(2):73-78.

  • Dore, W.G. and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Monograph 26, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. 566 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2001b. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 7, Monocotyledons (Orchidaceae through Zosteraceae). B.C. Minist. Sustainable Resour. Manage., and B.C. Minist. For. Victoria, BC. 379pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. New York: Oxford University Press. xxviii + 911 pp.

  • General Status 2015, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba vascular plant species list and proposed ranks and rank factors proposed by contractor (Diana Sawatzky).

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haines, A. and T.F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine, A Manual for Identification of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Maine. V.F.Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, Maine.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. Vol. 2. The biota of North America. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 500 pp.

  • McNeill, J. and W.G. Dore. 1976. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Ontario grasses. Naturaliste Can. 103:553-567.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2017.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia. Draft as of June 10, 2005. UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. Available online: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm. Accessed 2005.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2005. New York Flora Atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research . University of South Florida ]. New York Flora Association , Albany, New York.

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