Erythronium tuolumnense - Applegate
Tuolumne Fawnlily
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Erythronium tuolumnense Applegate (TSN 196390)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160447
Element Code: PMLIL0U0H0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Erythronium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Erythronium tuolumnense
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Jul2015
Global Status Last Changed: 01Jul2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Sierra Nevada foothills of Tuolumne County, California. This species faces many threats including off road vehicles, fire suppression, mining, campsite use and plant collecting. There about 35 known occurrences, but many need to be surveyed to update their status and condition.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to two watersheds in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of 2010 CNDDB knew of 30 total occurrences; 18 of which are nonhistorical.

Population Size Comments: Several populations with over 10,000 individuals reported to the CNDDB.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Some occurrences with good viability haven't been surveyed since the mid 1990s.

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The biggest threat to this species is off road vehicles which directly threatened one of the largest occurrences of this fawn lily. This occurrence is declining due to the use of off road vehicles in the area which can directly damage the plants and compact the soil. Other threats this species faces are logging, campsite use, garbage dumping, mining, and fire suppression. This species grows on the contact of two different soil types where there is usually a bit of moisture. This also happens to coincide with good gravel mining areas. Fire suppression is also a threat because as the trees and shrubs increase in density, the moisture available in the soil decreases which ultimately affects the native species that require an open habitat. Other threats that exist are plant collecting and global climate change. Development is also a threat to at least one occurrence where a well was built near it. Finally, road construction is also a threat to the species because even though the roads themselves might not impact the species, the creation of them ulimately does. The soils right above the roads crack over time and slumps down and these slumps can cover and destroy plants (pers. comm. M. Willits). This plant occurs on lands of basically a single landowner: Stanislaus NF.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: At least one of the largest occurrences of this species is declining due to the use of off road vehicles in the area (pers. comm. M. Willits). Field reports indicate this species is rather intolerant of logging and other timber harvest activities (road building, herbicide use, etc). Several occ's are reported threatened by timber harvest, road building, campgrounds, etc.

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: The long term trends of this species are not known.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Reproduces mainly vegetatively (Munz and Keck, 1959). Also, it has been observed that this species doesn't produce many seeds and it is also possible that this species may take a long time to mature (pers. comm. M. Willits).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: This species is a specialist and is endemic to a narrow area in California. It grows near perennial streams and in other ephemeral drainage areas and water availability is a key factor in where this species will grow. It is also known that it will grow on several soil types (pers. comm. M. Willits).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to two watersheds in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Tuolumne (06109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb with oval leaves, 1.5-3.5 dm long, and a stem of about the same length arising from an underground bulb. The yellow flowers are in bloom March-May.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Open, upper broadleafed and lower montane coniferous forests at 600-950 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Jul2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Maybury, K. (1997), rev. L. Morse (1998), rev. L. Oliver (2004); rev. R. Bittman 5/2005, rev. G. Davis (June 2012), rev Bittman (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fiedler, P.L. 1996. Rare Lilies of California. California Native Plant Society Press, Sacramento, California. 154 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Munz, P.A., with D.D. Keck. 1959. A California flora. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1681 pp.

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