Eleocharis diandra - C. Wright
Wright's Spikerush
Other Common Names: Wright's spikerush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: éléocharide à deux étamines
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134571
Element Code: PMCYP092C0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Eleocharis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Eleocharis diandra
Taxonomic Comments: Flora North America vol. 23 suggests that this is a distinct taxon, but there is uncertainty in it's separation from Eleocharis ovata. Other authors including A. Haines and Kartesz 1999 treat this taxon as distinct.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Sep2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep2010
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Eleocharis diandra is known from Massachusetts, New York, Vermont, Ontario and Quebec. It is threatened by water stabilization activities and shoreline development. This species is probably overlooked and therefore undercollected; there are few scientists searching and few who can confidently identify this taxon.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1N2 (02Nov2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), Massachusetts (S1), New Hampshire (S1), New York (S1), Vermont (S2)
Canada Ontario (S1), Quebec (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Medium) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: The range of Eleocharis diandra is from MA, NY, VT, NH, CT, ON, and QC. It is considered historic in New Hampshire as of 2006 (NatureServe Network Database as of September 2016).

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are approximately 6 extant occurrences documented: 1 in Massachusetts, 1 in New York, 3 in Vermont, and 1 in Ontario and Quebec (NatureServe Network Database as of September 2016).

Population Size Comments: The population number fluctuates highly from year to year with some years with many individuals.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are only 5 extant occurrences and the rank specifications for this species are not well defined, so determining the number of occurrences with good viability is difficult.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Shoreline development and water level stabilization are threats. An occurrence in Vermont is near a hydropower plant and the proximity to the power plant may threaten the rush. Other potential threats include erosion control projects, pollution, geese, recreationists, and unusual lake levels due to climate change.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: The range of Eleocharis diandra is from MA, NY, VT, NH, CT, ON, and QC. It is considered historic in New Hampshire as of 2006 (NatureServe Network Database as of September 2016).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, NH, NY, VT
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Franklin (25011), Hampshire (25015)
NH Cheshire (33005), Coos (33007), Grafton (33009), Hillsborough (33011), Merrimack (33013)
NY Oneida (36065), Oswego (36075)*
VT Chittenden (50007), Essex (50009)*, Orange (50017), Windham (50025)*, Windsor (50027)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Merrimack (01070006)+, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+*, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
04 Oneida (04140202)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Estuarine Habitat(s): River mouth/tidal river, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Shores of large lakes and streams, which are fresh or sometimes tidal. Substrates are predominantly sandy but also include silts and mud; community may be marsh or mud flat. Apparently adapted to the greatly fluctuating water levels of rivers and large lakes. 0 - 100 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Occurrence exhibits optimal or at least exceptionally favorable population size and/or quality and quantity of occupied habitat; and, if current conditions prevail, the occurrence is very likely to persist for the foreseeable future (i.e., at least 20-30 years) in its current condition or better. These occurrences have characteristics (e.g., size, condition, landscape context) that make them relatively invulnerable to extirpation or sustained population declines, even if they have declined somewhat relative to historical levels. For species associated with habitat patches or ephemeral or particularly dynamic habitats, occurrences warranting an A rank generally consist of metapopulations rather than single demes (unless exceptionally large and robust). Occurrences of this rank typically include at least 100 mature individuals but may be smaller (10s) or might require larger populations, depending on the species and its demographic characteristics. However, occurrences can be ranked A even if population size is not known. For example, for occurrences lacking information on population size, an A rank may be appropriate under the following circumstances: the population is clearly very large but it is not known how large; the area of occupied habitat is exceptionally large; or the occurrence has excellent condition and landscape context and a long history of occurrence persistence. Occurrences with excellent estimated viability are ranked A even if one or more other occurrences have a much larger population size and/or much greater quantity of occupied habitat. In most cases, occurrences ranked A will occupy natural habitats. However, "natural" is an ambiguous concept, and occurrences in "unnatural" conditions (e.g., somewhat modified by human actions) may still be assigned a rank of A if they otherwise meet the criteria.
Good Viability: Occurrence exhibits favorable population size and/or quality and quantity of occupied habitat;and, if current conditions prevail, the occurrence is likely to persist for the foreseeable future (i.e., at least 20-30 years) in its current condition or better. B-ranked occurrences have good estimated viability and, if protected, contribute importantly to maintaining or improving the conservation status of threatened or declining species. For species associated with habitat patches or ephemeral or particularly dynamic habitats, a high-quality occurrence may warrant a B rank if it consists of a single deme rather than a metapopulation (unless the single deme is exceptionally large and robust, in which case an A rank may be appropriate).
Fair Viability: Occurrence characteristics (size, condition, and landscape context) are non-optimal such that occurrence persistence is uncertain under current conditions, or the occurrence does not meet A or B criteria but may persist for the foreseeable future with appropriate protection or management, or the occurrence is likely to persist but not necessarily maintain current or historical levels of population size or genetic variability. This rank may be applied to relatively low-quality occurrences with respect to size, condition, and/or landscape context if they still appear to have reasonable prospects for persistence for the foreseeable future (at least 20-30 years). Examples include very small non-degraded relict occurrences as well as some remnant occurrences of former landscape-level species. These occurrences represent the lower bound of occurrences worthy of protection.
Poor Viability: If current conditions prevail, occurrence has a high risk of extirpation (because of small population size or area of occupancy, deteriorated habitat, poor conditions for reproduction, ongoing inappropriate management that is unlikely to change, or other factors). Questionably viable occurrences that could be restored to at least fair viability should not be ranked D if restoration is deemed feasible and plausible; in most such cases CD should be used. Very small occurrences that may be vulnerable to deleterious stochastic events (threats) may be ranked as follows: If the stochastic event is highly theoretical or of very low probability in the appropriate time frame (e.g., 20-30 years), then a C or CD rank may be appropriate. If a minority of other similar occurrences have disappeared as a result of, say, disease or inbreeding, then perhaps CD is best. If most of these small occurrences have been extirpated or are disappearing due to such events (threats), then D is probably appropriate. The D rank also applies if the population is so small that there will inevitably be a year (or generation) in the near future in which by chance all adults will be the same gender.
Justification: NatureServe Generic Element Occurrence rank guidelines.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03Jan2008
Author: Young, S.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Sep2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Nichols, B. and L. Oliver, rev. A. Tomaino (2016)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • FNA (Flora of North America Editorial Committee). 2002. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haines, A. 2001. Eleocharis aestuum (Cyperaceae), a new tidal river shore spikesedge of the eastern United States. Novon 11(1): 45-49.

  • Haines, A. 2003c. Eleocharis aestuum (Cyperaceae) in New York. NYFA (New York Flora Assocation) Newsletter 14(1): 4-6.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Seymour, F.C. 1989. The flora of New England. A manual for the identification of all vascular plants including ferns and their allies growing without cultivation in New England. Boston Museum Science, Boston. 611 pp. + appendix.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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