Helianthemum bicknellii - Fern.
Plains Frostweed
Other English Common Names: Hoary Frostweed
Other Common Names: hoary frostweed
Synonym(s): Crocanthemum bicknellii (Fernald) Janchen
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Helianthemum bicknellii Fern. (TSN 22259)
French Common Names: hélianthème de Bicknell
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133066
Element Code: PDCIS02020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rock-Rose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Violales Cistaceae Helianthemum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Helianthemum bicknellii
Taxonomic Comments: FNA (vol. 6, 2015) transfers Helianthemum bicknellii to Crocanthemum bicknellii; these treatments represent the same concept of the species.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 16May1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (05Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (SH), Colorado (S1), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SX), Georgia (SU), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S1S2), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S3), New York (S5), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (S1), Ohio (S2), Pennsylvania (S2), Rhode Island (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SH), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S1)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is known from Colorado and Wyoming, east through the midwestern US to the east coast and north into Manitoba and Ontario (Flora of North America 2015; USDA NRCS 2017).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Unknown causes of decline are threatening this species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is known from Colorado and Wyoming, east through the midwestern US to the east coast and north into Manitoba and Ontario (Flora of North America 2015; USDA NRCS 2017).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CO, CT, DEextirpated, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada MB, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013), Douglas (08035), El Paso (08041), Jefferson (08059)
KY Barren (21009)*, Edmonson (21061)*, Hardin (21093)
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Baltimore County (24005)*, Cecil (24015), Howard (24027)*, Prince Georges (24033)*, Somerset (24039)*, Wicomico (24045)*, Worcester (24047)*
NC Ashe (37009), Jackson (37099)*, Macon (37113)*, Swain (37173)*, Yancey (37199)
ND Cavalier (38019)*, Pembina (38067)*, Ransom (38073)
NE Antelope (31003), Brown (31017)*, Burt (31021), Cass (31025), Cherry (31031)*, Garfield (31071), Holt (31089), Jefferson (31095), Merrick (31121)*, Nance (31125)*, Rock (31149)*, Sarpy (31153)*, Wheeler (31183)
NJ Passaic (34031)
OH Erie (39043)*, Fulton (39051), Henry (39069), Highland (39071), Holmes (39075), Knox (39083), Lucas (39095), Madison (39097), Summit (39153), Wood (39173)
PA Adams (42001), Allegheny (42003)*, Beaver (42007)*, Bedford (42009)*, Berks (42011), Bucks (42017)*, Centre (42027)*, Chester (42029), Clearfield (42033)*, Clinton (42035)*, Delaware (42045)*, Lackawanna (42069), Lancaster (42071)*, Lehigh (42077)*, Luzerne (42079), Monroe (42089)*, Northampton (42095)*, Pike (42103)*, Venango (42121)*, Wayne (42127)*, Westmoreland (42129)*, York (42133)
TN Blount (47009)*, Monroe (47123)*
VA Augusta (51015), Caroline (51033)*, Floyd (51063), Highland (51091)*, Rockingham (51165)*
VT Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021), Windham (50025)
WV Greenbrier (54025), Nicholas (54067)
WY Crook (56011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
02 Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Upper Delaware (02040101)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+*, Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203)+*, Bald Eagle (02050204)+*, Upper Juniata (02050302)+*, Raystown (02050303)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+*, Severn (02060004)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+*, Monocacy (02070009)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower Rappahannock (02080104)+*, Mattaponi (02080105)+*, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+*, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+*, Upper James (02080201)+*, Maury (02080202)+
04 Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)+*, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+*, Lower Allegheny (05010009)+*, Upper Ohio (05030101)+*, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Gauley (05050005)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Green (05110001)+*, Barren (05110002)+*, Rough (05110004)+
06 Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+*, Tuckasegee (06010203)+*, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+*
09 Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Lower Red (09020311)+*, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+*
10 Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+*, Snake (10150005)+*, Lower Niobrara (10150007)+*, Upper South Platte (10190002)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Big Thompson (10190006)+, Kiowa (10190010)+, Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103)+*, Lower Platte (10200202)+, Upper North Loup (10210006)+*, Loup (10210009)+, Cedar (10210010)+, Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+*, Lower Little Blue (10270207)+
11 Fountain (11020003)+, Chico (11020004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Herbaceous plants with erect stems, typically 2-6 dm tall, simple or branched, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose. Leaves are simple, entire, and cauline; mostly 2-3 cm long; petiole 1?4 mm; blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, surfaces stellate-tomentose abaxially, stellate-pubescent adaxially, without simple hairs. Inflorescences in terminal cymes, flowers yellow, and of two distinct types: chasmogamous flowers (showy and open for pollination) 6?18 per cyme; and cleistogamous flowers (flowers closed, self-pollinating) in glomerules (compact cymes of small, almost sessile flowers), 1?10 flowers per glomerule, flowering 1?3 months later than chasmogamous flowers. Chasmogamous flowers are large and showy with numerous stamens. Cleistogamous flowers are smaller with 3-10 stamens (Flora of North America 2015, Weber and Wittmann 2012, Ackerfield 2015).
 

Technical Description: Herbs. Stems erect, <clustered on vertical caudex>, (12?)20?50(?67) cm, <simple or branched>, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose. Leaves cauline; petiole 1?4 mm; blade narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, (10?)18?32(?40) × 4?7(?10) mm, surfaces stellate-tomentose abaxially, stellate-pubescent adaxially, without simple hairs, lateral veins raised abaxially. Inflorescences terminal, cymes; chasmogamous flowers 6?10(?18) per cyme; cleistogamous in glomerules, 1?10 flowers per glomerule, <on lateral leafy branches 2.5?6 cm, flowering 1?3 months later than chasmogamous>. Pedicels (1.5?)3?8(?12) mm; bracts 3?7 × 0.5?1 mm. Chasmogamous flowers: outer sepals linear, 3.5?4.5(?8) × 0.4?1 mm, inner sepals <ovate-elliptic>, 5?8 × 2.4?4 mm, apex acute; petals obovate, 8?12 × 5?10 mm; capsules 3?5.5 × 2.5?4.5 mm, glabrous. Cleistogamous flowers: outer sepals linear, 0.5?1.5 × 0.3 mm, inner sepals ovate-elliptic, 1.7?2.8 × 1.5?2.3 mm, apex acute capsules 1.5?2.2 × 1.2?2.2 mm, glabrous (Flora of North America 2015).
 

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerfield, J. 2015. Flora of Colorado. Brit Press, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX. 818 pp.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. HUC10-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

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  • Daoud, H.S. and R.L. Wilbur. 1965. A revision of the North American species of Helianthemum (Cistaceae). Rhodora 67: 63-314 (interrupted pagination).

  • Daoud, H.S. and Wilbur, R.L. 1965. A Revision of the North American Species of Helianthemum (Cistaceae). Rhodora 67:63-82, 201-216, 255-312. A65DAO01PAUS.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Dorn, R. D. 1992. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, second edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

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  • Fertig, W. 2000. State Species Abstract: Helianthemum bicknellii. Updated 2008 by J. Handley and B. Heidel. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

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