Corallorhiza odontorhiza - (Willd.) Nutt.
Autumn Coralroot
Other Common Names: autumn coralroot
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
French Common Names: corallorhize d'automne
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160229
Element Code: PMORC0M030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Corallorhiza
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Corallorhiza odontorhiza
Taxonomic Comments: Can be distingished from C. wisteriana by flowering time (summer /fall vs spring for C. wisteriana) and bulbous white stem base (vs oblong in C. wisteriana). Flora of Florida is not doubling 'r' in genus name (fide R. Wunderlin). Kartesz (1999) now recognizes C. odontorhiza var. pringlei. Spelling of genus name with one 'r' (Corallorhiza) has been conserved; see Taxon 48(2):363 (May, 1999) for more information (pers. comm. John Kartesz, Aug. 1999).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in eastern U.S. and disjunct population in eastern Mexico; at southern limit of range in Florida.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (21Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (S4), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (S1), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S1), Maine (S1), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1?), New Hampshire (S1), New Jersey (SNR), New York (SH), North Carolina (S4?), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S1), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S3)
Canada Ontario (S2S3), Quebec (SH)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Disjunct between eastern U.S. and central Mexico and adj. Central America (Luer 1972); Canada, PA, New England, VA; northern Florida.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Disjunct between eastern U.S. and central Mexico and adj. Central America (Luer 1972); Canada, PA, New England, VA; northern Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Jackson (01071)*
DE New Castle (10003)
FL Columbia (12023)
IA Boone (19015)*, Clayton (19043)*, Decatur (19053)*, Delaware (19055)*, Dubuque (19061)*, Fremont (19071)*, Johnson (19103)*, Jones (19105)*, Linn (19113)*, Monona (19133)*, Muscatine (19139)*, Story (19169)*, Webster (19187)*, Winneshiek (19191)*
IN Porter (18127)
LA Caldwell (22021), Ouachita (22073), St. Helena (22091)*
MA Berkshire (25003), Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013), Hampshire (25015), Worcester (25027)
ME Hancock (23009), Oxford (23017), York (23031)
NE Douglas (31055), Nemaha (31127), Sarpy (31153), Washington (31177)
NH Carroll (33003), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017), Sullivan (33019)*
OK Adair (40001), Caddo (40015)*, Le Flore (40079), McCurtain (40089)
RI Providence (44007)
SD Lawrence (46081), Roberts (46109)
VT Addison (50001), Bennington (50003), Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Rutland (50021), Windsor (50027)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Maine Coastal (01050002)+, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Concord (01070005)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+*, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Chicopee (01080204)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+
03 Santa Fe (03110206)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
06 Guntersville Lake (06030001)+*
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Root (07040008)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Turkey (07060004)+*, Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, South Skunk (07080105)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+*, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+*
08 Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Castor (08040302)+, Boeuf (08050001)+*, Amite (08070202)+*
10 Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+*, Redwater (10120203)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+*, Little Sioux (10230003)+*, Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006)+, West Nishnabotna (10240002)+*, Nishnabotna (10240004)+*, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+, Thompson (10280102)+*
11 Illinois (11110103)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Upper Washita (11130302)+*, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Sapropytic herb ca 20 cm tall with inconspicuous pinkish flws.
Habitat Comments: Upland hardwood forest.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Aug1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Johnson, A. F.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Argus, G.W. 1978. Flore canadienne touchée par la Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d'extinction. Service canadien de la faune, Rapports CITES. no 4 14

  • Argus, G.W. et K.M. Pryer. 1990. Les plantes vasculaires du Canada. Musée canadien de la nature. Ottawa. 191 p.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Brown, J.R. 1984. In defense of the autumn coral-root (Corallorhiza odontorhiza). The Plant Press 2(3): 78-81.

  • Brownell, V.R., P.M. Catling, M.J. Oldham and C.S. Blaney. 1994. New distributional records in relation to the phytogeography and floristic diversity of the eastern Lake Ontario region. Michigan Botanist 33: 53-65.

  • Brownell, V.R., and C.S. Blaney. 1995. Lower Trent Region Natural Areas - Volume 1: A Biological Inventory and Evaluation of 20 Natural Areas in the Lower Trent Region, 1994. Lower Trent Region Conservation Authority, Trenton, Ontario. 165 pp.

  • Bruce-Grey Plant Committee (Owen Sound Field Naturalists). [1997]. A Guide to the Orchids of Bruce and Grey Counties, Ontario. Stan Brown Printers Limited, Owen Sound, Ontario. 105 pp.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Catling, P.M. 1983. Autogamy in eastern Canadian orchids - a review of current knowledge and some new observations. Naturaliste canadien 110: 37-53.

  • Chamberlain, J.A. 1979. Cavan Township Environmentally Sensitive Areas Study. Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, Ontario. iii + 105 pp.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Dearness, J. 1905. The Orchidaceae of Middlesex County. The Ontario Natural Science Bulletin 1: 33-34.

  • Faull, J.H. (ed.) 1913. The Natural History of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Institute, Toronto, Ontario. 419 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1925. Persistence of plants in unglaciated areas of boreal America. Memoirs of the Gray Herbarium 2 : 239-342.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Freudenstein, J.V. 1997. A monograph of Corallorhiza (Orchidaceae). Harvard Papers in Botany 10:5-51.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Homoya, Michael A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. Bloomington, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Johnson, J. 2016. The Vascular Plants of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario. W.D. Keeling Printers Ltd., Owen Sound, Ontario. 298 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • LUER, CARLYLE A. 1972. THE NATIVE ORCHIDS OF FLORIDA. THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN.

  • Landon, M. 1944. Rediscovery of Corallorhiza odontorhiza. Canadian Field-Naturalist 58: 191.

  • Luer, C. A. 1972. The native orchids of Florida. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 293 pp.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. The New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Marie-Victorin, Fr. 1964. Flore laurentienne. 2e édition revue par E. Rouleau. Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal. 925 p.

  • Morris, F. and E.A. Eames. 1929. Our Wild Orchids. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 464 pp.

  • Oldham, M.J., and J. Consiglio. 2018. Autumn Coralroot (Corallorhiza odontorhiza), an update on its distribution in Ontario. Field Botanists of Ontario (FBO) Newsletter : in press.

  • Rider, A.H. 1985. Both forms of Autumn Coral Root (Corallorhiza odontorhiza) in lawns at Kettle Point, Lambton County. The Plant Press 3(2): 38.

  • Sabourin, A., D. Paquette et L. Couillard. 1997. La situation de la corallorhize d'automme variete de Pringle (Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. pringlei) au Quebec. Ministere de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Government du Quebec.. 38 pp.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. The Vascular Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. Pages 1-52 in The Natural Areas Inventory of the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk - Volume II: Annotated Checklists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe, Ontario.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

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