Cladium mariscoides - (Muhl.) Torr.
Twig-rush
Other English Common Names: Smooth Sawgrass
Other Common Names: smooth sawgrass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. (TSN 39880)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.155072
Element Code: PMCYP04050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Cladium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cladium mariscoides
Taxonomic Comments: Vegetatively distinct from Cladium jamaicense. Their ranges overlap on the eastern coast of the Carolinas and the western Florida Panhandle to coastal Alabama (Bridges & Orzell, 1993).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 13May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 29Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Cladium mariscoides is abundant in many regions of its broad range. Like many species, it may be threatened by destruction of its wetland habitats, but it is secure at the moment.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (10Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S4), Florida (S1), Georgia (SU), Illinois (S3), Indiana (SNR), Kentucky (S1?), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S5), New York (S5), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (S3), Pennsylvania (S2), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (S1), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S2S3), Virginia (S3S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Manitoba (S2S3), New Brunswick (S3S4), Newfoundland Island (S1), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: The range of Cladium mariscoides is continuous from New Brunswick and Newfoundland west to Minnesota and south to Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Populations are generally scattered from Virginia south to Florida and Alabama. This species is disjunct in Texas (Bridges and Orzell 1989) and Saskatchewan. Populations may be relictual in the Southeast (Bridges et al. 1993, Anderson 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size Comments: Because this species spreads vegetatively via rhizomes, it is often difficult to distinguish genetic individuals from one another.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The principal threat to Cladium mariscoides is the destruction of its wetland habitats, but this species occurs in a fairly wide variety of wetlands. Specific threats include the development of wetlands; drainage of wetlands for agriculture and conversion to pasture; peat mining; successional overgrowth of habitat by woody species; and invasion by exotic plant species, such as purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and common loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris). Highly threatened by sedimentation, land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: C. mariscoides can be susceptible to habitat loss, but it occurs in a fairly wide variety of wetlands.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: The range of Cladium mariscoides is continuous from New Brunswick and Newfoundland west to Minnesota and south to Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Populations are generally scattered from Virginia south to Florida and Alabama. This species is disjunct in Texas (Bridges and Orzell 1989) and Saskatchewan. Populations may be relictual in the Southeast (Bridges et al. 1993, Anderson 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TX, VA, VT, WI
Canada MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Mobile (01097)
FL Okaloosa (12091), Santa Rosa (12113)
MN Becker (27005), Beltrami (27007), Carlton (27017), Carver (27019), Cass (27021), Clearwater (27029), Cook (27031), Crow Wing (27035), Dakota (27037), Kittson (27069), Koochiching (27071), Lake (27075), Lake of the Woods (27077), Le Sueur (27079), Mahnomen (27087), Norman (27107), Pine (27115), Polk (27119), Redwood (27127), Roseau (27135), Scott (27139), St. Louis (27137), Stearns (27145)
MS Jackson (28059)
NC Alleghany (37005), Ashe (37009), Camden (37029), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047), Cumberland (37051), Currituck (37053), Dare (37055), Harnett (37085), Hoke (37093), Moore (37125), New Hanover (37129), Onslow (37133), Pender (37141), Watauga (37189), Yancey (37199)
OH Champaign (39021), Clark (39023), Erie (39043), Henry (39069), Logan (39091), Lucas (39095), Miami (39109), Ottawa (39123), Portage (39133), Seneca (39147), Stark (39151), Wyandot (39175)*
PA Bedford (42009), Butler (42019), Carbon (42025)*, Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Lancaster (42071), Luzerne (42079)*, Monroe (42089)*, Philadelphia (42101)*, Sullivan (42113), Wayne (42127)
SC Darlington (45031)*, Georgetown (45043)
VT Addison (50001), Caledonia (50005), Chittenden (50007), Essex (50009), Orange (50017), Orleans (50019), Rutland (50021), Washington (50023), Windham (50025), Windsor (50027)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Passumpsic (01080102)+, Waits (01080103)+, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+, White (01080105)+, Black-Ottauquechee (01080106)+*, Deerfield (01080203)+
02 Upper Delaware (02040101)+, Lackawaxen (02040103)+, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+*, Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206)+, Raystown (02050303)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+
03 Albemarle (03010205)+, Pamlico Sound (03020105)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, Upper Cape Fear (03030004)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lower Pee Dee (03040201)+*, Lynches (03040202)+*, Black (03040205)+*, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+*, Yellow (03140103)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Perdido Bay (03140107)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
04 Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 French (05010004)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+
06 Nolichucky (06010108)+
07 Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Rum (07010207)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+
09 Buffalo (09020106)+, Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Red Lake (09020303)+, Clearwater (09020305)+, Two Rivers (09020312)+, Roseau (09020314)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+, Rapid (09030007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Twig rush; Sedge family (Cyperaceae). A coarse, perennial, herbaceous plant (monocot).
Habitat Comments: Cladium mariscoides occurs in open, sunny, wet areas dominated by sedges. Its habitats include the following: calcareous and saline marshes and swamps; patterned water tracks, spring fens, and calcareous fens; and wetlands and swales of the Atlantic coastal plain and the Great Lakes.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Apr1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KLC

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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