Carex schweinitzii - Dewey ex Schwein.
Schweinitz's Sedge
Other Common Names: Schweinitz's sedge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Carex schweinitzii Dewey ex Schwein. (TSN 39465)
French Common Names: carex de Schweinitz
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147169
Element Code: PMCYP03C60
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Sedge Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Cyperaceae Carex
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Carex schweinitzii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Sep2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep2002
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Small, scattered populations but wide range from Connecticut and Vermont west to New York, Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin south to Virginia. Further searching needed in some areas. Hydrological alterations are a potential threat to its seepage habitat as well as mowing, residential development, road maintenance, and succession.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (05Sep2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (S3), Missouri (SH), New York (S2S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Rhode Island (SH), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SH)
Canada Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ontario, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and Wisconsin (Read, 1976; Seymour, 1989; Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Not seen recently in Rhode Island. The historical Missouri collection is far disjunct and may have been a label mixup (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Reports of Carex schweinitzii from North Carolina actually represent C. utriculata (Weakley 2015). Tennessee and New Jersey reports are also likely misidentified.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 65 extant occurrences documented but that does not include Michigan (NatureServe Network Database as of September 2016). In Ontario, there are estimated to be 20-50 occurrences but there hasn't been directed survey (M. Oldham, pers. com., 2009). May be overlooked.

Population Size Comments: Very local and uncommon but often forms large colonies where present (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002).


Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Somewhat threatened by land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Hydrological alterations are a potential threat to its seepage habitat. Other potential threats include mowing, residential development, road maintenance, and succession of habitat (New York Natural Heritage Program. 2015).

Environmental Specificity Comments: Seems to prefer calcareous seepages.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ontario, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and Wisconsin (Read, 1976; Seymour, 1989; Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Not seen recently in Rhode Island. The historical Missouri collection is far disjunct and may have been a label mixup (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2002). Reports of Carex schweinitzii from North Carolina actually represent C. utriculata (Weakley 2015). Tennessee and New Jersey reports are also likely misidentified.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, MI, MO, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005)
MA Berkshire (25003)
MO Franklin (29071)*, Jefferson (29099)*, St. Charles (29183)*, St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*
NY Albany (36001)*, Bronx (36005)*, Cattaraugus (36009), Cayuga (36011)*, Columbia (36021)*, Cortland (36023), Dutchess (36027)*, Erie (36029)*, Herkimer (36043), Lewis (36049)*, Madison (36053), Oneida (36065), Onondaga (36067), Oswego (36075)*, Otsego (36077)*, Rensselaer (36083)*, Saratoga (36091)*, Schoharie (36095)*, Tioga (36107)*, Tompkins (36109), Westchester (36119)*
PA Bedford (42009), Blair (42013), Carbon (42025)*, Centre (42027)*
VA Augusta (51015), Highland (51091), Montgomery (51121), Pulaski (51155), Washington (51191)*
VT Bennington (50003), Orange (50017), Rutland (50021)
WI Iowa (55049)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 White (01080105)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Mohawk (02020004)+, Schoharie (02020005)+*, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+*, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Bronx (02030102)+*, Lehigh (02040106)+*, Upper Susquehanna (02050101)+, Chenango (02050102)+, Owego-Wappasening (02050103)+*, Bald Eagle (02050204)+*, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Raystown (02050303)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Upper James (02080201)+
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101)+
04 Cattaraugus (04120102)+*, Seneca (04140201)+, Oneida (04140202)+, Black (04150101)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Upper New (05050001)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*
07 Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+*, Meramec (07140102)+*
10 Lower Missouri (10300200)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A stoloniferous sedge with stout, triangular stems, 3 to 7 narrow leaves, and 3 to 6 flowering spikes.
General Description: Schweinitz' sedge is a grass-like perennial that occurs in patches. Its leaves are 4-11 mm wide and often occur in small tufts, sometimes without flowering stems. When present, flowering/fruiting stems 18-65 cm long arise from the leaves at the bases of the plants and are terminated by a narrowly cylindrical cluster (spike) of male flowers. Secondary stems branch off of the main stems in the upper part of the plants and are terminated by narrowly cylindrical spikes of female flowers/fruits. Fruits (perigynia) are 4.2-7.0 mm long.
Technical Description: Rhizome: slender, stoloniferous; the stolons numerous, long, slender, tough, and horizontal, Culms: sharply triangular, stout, stiff, erect, exceeded by the bracts and upper leaves, 2.5-7.5 dm tall. Leaves: 3-7 per culm, septate nodulose, 2-3 dm long and 4.0-10.0 mm wide, leaves of the previous year dry, persistent, conspicuous. Bracts: the lower, leaflike, strongly sheathing at the base. Flowers: monosporangiate. Spikes: the staminate; solitary, erect, slender peduncled, up to 2.5 cm long and 2.5 mm wide, terminal. The pistillate; 2-5, the lower long peduncled, the upper sessile or nearly so, the spikes narrowly cylindric, 2.5-9 cm long and 8.0-14.0 mm wide. Scales: staminate, acute or cuspidate. Pistillate; small, entire, hyaline or brown tinged, with a rough awn equalling or exceeding the perigynium. Perigynia: numerous ascending in several rows, narrowly ovoid, 5-7 mm long and 1.5-2.0 mm wide, inflated, shining, coarsely ribbed, beaked. Beak: smooth, bidentate, 1.5-2.0 mm long, teeth stiff, erect or spreading, 0.5 mm long. Achenes: triangular with concave sides, 1.5-1.75 mm long and about 1 mm wide. Style: flexuous, slender, persistent. Stigmas: 3, light brown, short, slender.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Spikes 2 or more, the upper staminate and unlike the lower pistillate ones. Scales of the pistillate spikes with slender rough margined awn much exceeding the body . Those of the staminate spikes merely acute. Perigynia flat, lustrous, with 2 slender sharp teeth. Achenes lenticular, not constricted, continous with the style.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Inflated perigynia may aid in water dispersal.
Ecology Comments: Tolerates shade of hardwoods or conifers or grows in riparian or meadow situations in cold, wet sites.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Wet, mucky soils in areas of calcareous bedrock or till generally influenced by cold, clear seepage. Typically occurs in sloping or marl fens or cedar swamps but can occur in wet meadows and occasionally ditches.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Monitor A- and B-ranked populations every two to five years. Assess impact of livestock grazing.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Sep2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: C. Fichtel & E. Marshall, rev. B. Popp, rev. L. Morse (2002), rev. A. Tomaino & NE Grank workshop (2009), rev. A. Tomaino (2016)
Management Information Edition Date: 14Oct1993
Management Information Edition Author: DINNEY GIRDLER
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Bright, J. 1925-1930. The Genus Carex in Pennsylvania. Trillia 9:1-33.

  • Bright, J. 1925-1930. The Genus Carex in Pennsylvania, Trillia 9:1-33. A25BRI01PAUS

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Clausen, R.T., and H.A. Wahl. 1939. Plants of central Pennsylvania. Rhodora 41:28-34.

  • Clausen, RT. AND HA. WAHL. 1939. PLANTS OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA. RHODORA 41:28-34

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 608 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mackenzie, K.K. 1935. Cyperacea. North American Flora. A35MAC01PAUS.

  • Mackenzie, K.K. 1935. Cyperaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. North American Flora.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2015. Conservation Guide for Carex schweinitzii. Online. Available: http://acris.nynhp.org/guide.php?id=9514 (a ccessed 16 September 2016).

  • Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E., and Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The Univ. of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. B68RAD01PAUS.

  • Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E., and Bell, C.R. 1978. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The Univ. of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. B78RAD01PAUS.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

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  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

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