Calamagrostis perplexa - Scribn.
Wood Reedgrass
Synonym(s): Calamagrostis porteri ssp. perplexa (Scribn.) Clausen
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calamagrostis perplexa Scribn. (TSN 40560)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141282
Element Code: PMPOA17180
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Calamagrostis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calamagrostis perplexa
Taxonomic Comments: An apparently sterile species, intermediate between Calamagrostis porteri and C. canadensis (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007). Kartesz (1999) and Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007) maintain C. perplexa as a species (not a hybrid).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Sep2008
Global Status Last Changed: 25Feb1985
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to New York State where known from only three sites. Calamagrostis perplexa is apparently of hybrid origin and sterile.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States New York (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known from only three sites, one in central New York State and two in eastern New York State.

Area of Occupancy: 3-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: 3 extant populations. Type locality is Thatcher's Pinnacle, Danby, Tompkins County, New York. Discovered in Ulster County, New York in 2007 (Howard et al., in press 2007). In 2008, the Columbia County, New York report was relocated (T. Howard, pers. comm., 2008).

Population Size Comments: In 2007, the Tompkins County site had two flowering individuals and about 500 vegetative ramets (Howard et al., in press). These may all be a single genet (Greene 1980, 1984). In 2007, the Ulster County site had 294 flowering culms (Howard et al., in press).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Tompkins County site is accessible via off-road vehicles; minor disturbances and fire probably are not threats. Logging should be discouraged.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Despite fires and grazing, the Tompkins County population has persisted for a century.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known from only three sites, one in central New York State and two in eastern New York State.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NY Tompkins (36109), Ulster (36111)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Rondout (02020007)+
04 Seneca (04140201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A spreading perennial grass, up to 1 m tall. This taxon may be a sterile hybrid between 2 fairly common and widespread grasses, Calamagrostis porteri and C. canadensis. It has the foliage, stout twisted awn, and ecological traits of C. porteri, but the laxer inflorescence, and occasionally branching stems of C. canadensis. No mature fruit are known.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Well-drained, rocky, somewhat acid soils on warm, partly open ridgetop; Quercus montana dominates. Other trees include Q. alba, Q. rubra, Q. coccinea, and Carya glabra.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Occurrence exhibits optimal or at least exceptionally favorable population size and/or quality and quantity of occupied habitat; and, if current conditions prevail, the occurrence is very likely to persist for the foreseeable future (i.e., at least 20-30 years) in its current condition or better. These occurrences have characteristics (e.g., size, condition, landscape context) that make them relatively invulnerable to extirpation or sustained population declines, even if they have declined somewhat relative to historical levels. For species associated with habitat patches or ephemeral or particularly dynamic habitats, occurrences warranting an A rank generally consist of metapopulations rather than single demes (unless exceptionally large and robust). Occurrences of this rank typically include at least 1,000 mature individuals but may be smaller (100s) or might require larger populations (10,000s), depending on the species and its demographic characteristics. However, occurrences can be ranked A even if population size is not known. For example, for occurrences lacking information on population size, an A rank may be appropriate under the following circumstances: the population is clearly very large but it is not known how large; the area of occupied habitat is exceptionally large; or the occurrence has excellent condition and landscape context and a long history of occurrence persistence. Occurrences with excellent estimated viability are ranked A even if one or more other occurrences have a much larger population size and/or much greater quantity of occupied habitat. In most cases, occurrences ranked A will occupy natural habitats. However, "natural" is an ambiguous concept, and occurrences in "unnatural" conditions (e.g., somewhat modified by human actions) may still be assigned a rank of A if they otherwise meet the criteria.
Good Viability: Occurrence exhibits favorable population size and/or quality and quantity of occupied habitat; and, if current conditions prevail, the occurrence is likely to persist for the foreseeable future (i.e., at least 20-30 years) in its current condition or better. B-ranked occurrences have good estimated viability and, if protected, contribute importantly to maintaining or improving the conservation status of threatened or declining species. For species associated with habitat patches or ephemeral or particularly dynamic habitats, a high-quality occurrence may warrant a B rank if it consists of a single deme rather than a metapopulation (unless the single deme is exceptionally large and robust, in which case an A rank may be appropriate).
Fair Viability: Occurrence characteristics (size, condition, and landscape context) are non-optimal such that occurrence persistence is uncertain under current conditions, or the occurrence does not meet A or B criteria but may persist for the foreseeable future with appropriate protection or management, or the occurrence is likely to persist but not necessarily maintain current or historical levels of population size or genetic variability. This rank may be applied to relatively low-quality occurrences with respect to size, condition, and/or landscape context if they still appear to have reasonable prospects for persistence for the foreseeable future (at least 20-30 years). Examples include very small non-degraded relict occurrences as well as some remnant occurrences of former landscape-level species. These occurrences represent the lower bound of occurrences worthy of protection.
Poor Viability: If current conditions prevail, occurrence has a high risk of extirpation (because of small population size or area of occupancy, deteriorated habitat, poor conditions for reproduction, ongoing inappropriate management that is unlikely to change, or other factors). Questionably viable occurrences that could be restored to at least fair viability should not be ranked D if restoration is deemed feasible and plausible; in most such cases CD should be used. Very small occurrences that may be vulnerable to deleterious stochastic events (threats) may be ranked as follows: If the stochastic event is highly theoretical or of very low probability in the appropriate time frame (e.g., 20-30 years), then a C or CD rank may be appropriate. If a minority of other similar occurrences have disappeared as a result of, say, disease or inbreeding, then perhaps CD is best. If most of these small occurrences have been extirpated or are disappearing due to such events (threats), then D is probably appropriate. The D rank also applies if the population is so small that there will inevitably be a year (or generation) in the near future in which by chance all adults will be the same gender.
Justification: NatureServe Generic Element Occurrence rank guidelines.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 03Jan2008
Author: Young, S.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Mar1986
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Rawinski, T.J. (1986); rev. Maybury, K./Young, S. 1996, rev. A. Tomaino (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. 1970 printing with corrections by R.C. Rollins [of 1950 8th edition]. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxviii + 911 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Greene, C. 1980. The systematics of Calamagrostis (Gramineae) in eastern North America [Ph.D. thesis]. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

  • Greene, C.W. 1984. Sexual and apomictic reproduction in Calamagrostis (Gramineae) from eastern North America. American J. Botany 71(3):285-293.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Howard, T.G., J.M. Saarela, B. Paszko, P.M. Peterson, and D. Werier. 2009. New records and a taxonomic review of Calamagrostis perplexa (Poaceaee: Poeae: Agrostidinae), a New York State endemic grass. Rhodora 111(946):155-170.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Mitchell, Richard S. and Gordon C. Tucker. 1997. Revised Checklist of New York State Plants. Contributions to a Flora of New York State. Checklist IV. Bulletin No. 490. New York State Museum. Albany, NY. 400 pp.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Weldy, Troy W. and David Werier. 2009. New York Flora Atlas. [S.M. Landry and K.N. Campbell (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research. University of South Florida]. New York Flora Association, Albany, NY. Available on the web at (http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/).

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