Calamagrostis epigeios - (L.) Roth
Feathertop
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth (TSN 40536)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.141283
Element Code: PMPOA170A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Calamagrostis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Calamagrostis epigeios
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (30Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Dakota (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IAexotic, ILexotic, KSexotic, MA, MIexotic, NDexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, PAexotic, WIexotic, WYexotic
Canada BCexotic, NBexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Currently known from scattered locations in 11 states but sold as an ornamental and planted for erosion control and revegetation. Occurs in a variety of habitats including sandy woods, salt-marshes, fields, waste places, disturbed woods, roadsides, moist lowland, river bank, forest and grassland. Very little information was found about its impacts on native species habitats in the U.S. It has high ecological impacts in some situations in its native range in Europe, particularly in sandy soils. Control can be accomplished with herbicides.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 21Apr2006
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe, temperate Asia, India, Pakistan, and eastern and southern Africa (USDA 2005).

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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation in the U.S. (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Occurs in disturbed woods, roadsides, and waste ground in Pennsylvania (Rhoads and Block 2000).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Information on impacts in other countries was found in the literature but no information on impacts in the U.S. was found; assumption is that there may be unreported impacts in the U.S. In the Netherlands, Calamagrostis epigeios is a problematic native; in coastal dune grasslands where nutrients have become more available due in part to acid rain, it has increased in abundance and contributes to a positive feedback-loop in which higher litter input and increased exudation of hydrogen ions, futher enlarges the P and N availability and the dominance of high-productive competitive species such as Calamagrostis epigeios (Koen et al. 2005).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Perennial with culms 1 to 1.5 meters tall and extensively creeping rhizomes (Hitchcock 1951). Information on impacts in other countries was found in the literature but no information on impacts in the U.S. was found; assumption is that there may be unreported impacts in the U.S. In the Netherlands, Calamagrostis epigeios is a problematic native; it is described as a coarse, highly productive grass that dominates and has high litter output (Koen et al. 2005).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Moderate significance
Comments: Information on impacts in other countries was found in the literature but no information on impacts in the U.S. was found; assumption is that there may be unreported impacts in the U.S. In the Netherlands, Calamagrostis epigeios is a problematic native; in coastal dune grasslands it has increased in abundance and out-competes the characteristic dune grassland species (Koen et al. 2005). In Hungary, Calamagrostis epigeios is described as a dangerous native that shows invasive tendancies (Mihály and Demeter 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of disproportionate impacts on particular native species found in the literature; assumption is that any impacts are not high or moderate.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Sandy woods and salt-marshes (Gleason and Cronquist 1991), moist lowland area (Voss 1972), bank of a river in moist sand and forest and grassland habitat (IPAW 2003) may be of conservation significance but apparently it is not often threatening elements of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Established in a few very scattered counties in 11 states from Masaschusetts to Pennsylvania, Michigan, to Iowa, and Kansas, North Dakota and Wyoming (J. Kartesz, unpublished data).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Medium/Low significance
Comments: No mention of negative impacts on biodiversity in the U.S. found in the literature; assumption is that impacts occur in <50% of the species' current generalized range. In Wisconsin, described as spreading elewhere in a similar ecoregion but unknown if it will become a serious invader of native plant communities (IPAW 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from distribution as currently understood (J. Kartesz, unpublished data; TNC 2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: In the northeastern U.S., sandy woods, salt-marshes, fields, and waste places (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). In Pennsylvania, disturbed woods, roadsides, and waste ground (Rhoads and Block 2000). In Michigan, a moist lowland area (Voss 1972). In Illinois, a strip mine (Mohlenbrock 1986). In Wisconsin, on the bank of a river in moist sand (Wisconsin State Herbaria 2005) and in forest and grassland habitat (IPAW 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: It is still available for sale. Occurs in disturbed areas (Rhoads and Block 2000) ; assumption is that disturbed areas are not declining and therefore this species' total range is not declining.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:High significance
Comments: Inferred from USDA (1990) and J. Kartesz, unpublished data.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Sold on the internet as an ornamental grass (Bluestem Nursery 2006). Planted as an ornamental, for erosion control, and revegetation (USDA 2005).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Occurs in disturbed areas (Rhoads and Block 2000); assumption is that disturbed areas are not decreasing or remaining stable and therefore this species' local range is not decreasing or remaining stable. In Massachusetts, this species has been observed spreading in some managed grasslands and in some former cranberry bogs (Tim Simmons, pers. comm., January 2007).


14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Medium/Low significance
Comments: No mention of invasion of undisturbed habitats found in the literature; assumption is that it rarely or seldom invades undisturbed habitats.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Moderate significance
Comments: In Ontario, it is exotic and occurs near highways and on mine tailings (Dore and McNeill 1980). Other habitats in Canada include, pastures, old fields, railway lines, roadsides, and disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003). In the Netherlands, Calamagrostis epigeios is a problematic native; in coastal dune grasslands it has increased in abundance and out-competes the characteristic dune grassland species (Koen et al. 2005). In Hungary, Calamagrostis epigeios is described as a dangerous native that shows invasive tendancies (Mihály and Demeter 2003).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High/Low significance
Comments: Perennial with extensively creeping rhizomes (Hitchcock 1951). Densely colonial by rhizomes (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Rapid spreader in sandy soil, slower in heavy soil (Bluestem Nursery 2006). The species has at least one aggressive characteristic.

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Moderate significance
Comments: In Britain, described as well controlled by a forest herbicide treatment (McCavish 1980). In Wisconsin, categorized as having the greatest potential for being controlled cost effectively using integrated pest management techniques (Falck and Garske 2002).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of control requiring more than 10 years found in the literature; assumption is that control requires less than 10 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Moderate significance
Comments: In Britain, the forest herbicide treatment did cause damage to other species if applied during the active growing period (McCavish 1980).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: Planted as an ornamental and for erosion control (USDA 2005); assumption is, at least in some areas, accessibility may be a problem.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aiken, S.G., W.G. Dore, L.P. Lefkovitch and K.C. Armstrong. 1989. Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) in North America, especially Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:3205-3218.

  • Bluestem Nursery. 2006. Calamagrostis epigejos factsheet. Online. Available: http://www.bluestem.ca/calamagrostis-epigejos.htm (accessed 20 April 2006).

  • Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian agricultural weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa, Ontario. Online. Available: http://res2.agr.gc.ca/ecorc/weeds_herbes/pdf/inv_e.pdf

  • Dore, W.G. and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Monograph 26, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario. 566 pp.

  • Dore, W.G., and J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Research Branch, Agriculture Cananda, Ottawa. 566 pp.

  • Falck, M. and S. Garske. 2002. Invasive Non-native Plant Management During 2002. Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission. Biological Services Division. Administrative Report 02-12. Odanah, WI 54861. http://www.glifwc-maps.org/pdf/Admin_Rep_02_12.pdf (Accessed 2006)

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin (IPAW). 2003. IPAW working list of the invasive plants of Wisconsin: a call for comments and information. Plants Out of Place, Issue 4. Online. Available: http://www.ipaw.org/newsletters/issue4.pdf (accessed 2006).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Koen, K., B. Brinkman, L. Kuiters, P. Verdonschot. 2005. Is ecological succession predictable? Theory and applications. Wageningen, The Netherlands, Alterra, Alterra-Report 1277. 80 pp. [http://www2.alterra.wur.nl/Webdocs/PDFFiles/Alterrarapporten/AlterraRapport1277.pdf.]

  • McCavish, W. J. 1980. Hexazinone - a new forest herbicide. Proceedings of the Conference on Weed Control in Forestry, Nottingham, pp. 217-225.

  • Mihály, B., and A. Demeter. 2003. Invasive alien species in Hungary. National Ecological Network No. 6. Authority for Nature Conservation, Ministry of Environment and Water, Budapest. Online. Available: http://www.ktm.hu/cimg/documents/ 1231_invazivfajokangol_2_3.pdf (accessed 2006).

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois. 507 pp.

  • Morton, J.K., and J.M. Venn. 1990. A checklist of the flora of Ontario vascular plants. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. 218 pp.

  • Rhoads, A.F. and T.A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1061 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2005. December 9 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov2/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2006).

  • Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor. 488 pp.

  • Wisconsin State Herbaria. 2005. January 12 last update. Wisconsin Botanical Information System (WBIS). Herbaria Plant Specimen Database. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Online. Available: http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora/specimen/ (accessed 2006).

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