Buddleja davidii - Franch.
Orange-eye Butterfly-bush
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Buddleja davidii Franch. (TSN 29914)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145079
Element Code: PDBUD01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Buddlejaceae Buddleja
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Buddleja davidii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (30Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Kentucky (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Ontario (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, CTexotic, DEexotic, GA, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MIexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, PAexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, ONexotic

Range Map
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Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: High/Low
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This species occurs throughout the northeast and extends to the southeast. It also occurs in the Pacific Northwest. Currently, it is most problematic in Oregon and Washington where it is known to form monospecific stands in riparian ecosystems. The full potential of this species is not yet realized in the United States, however, it is a problematic pest in New Zealand and in Europe. It is a watched species in Australia too, however, it's full potential is not known there yet either. This species produces many light seeds that can travel long distances. While it's behavior as a pest is not completely known in the United States, in New Zealand its been documented that after it reaches maturity (around 10 years) it may be out competed by native species.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 02Feb2004
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: This species is Native to China (Starr et al. 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species occurs througout the northeast, extends to the southeast and is also found in the Pacific Northwest (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: This species has been documented native species habitats in Oregon, Washington (NPSO) and Rhode Island (Starr et al. 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: High/Low

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:High/Low significance
Comments: Buddleja davidii is known to faciliate succession (Starr et al. 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:High significance
Comments: This species forms monospecific stands in areas in Oregon and Washington (NPSOR).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:High/Moderate significance
Comments: This species displaces native willows which are essential host plants for native butterflies (NPS-OR).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Buddleja davidii threatens native willows which are the required host plants for native butterflies in Oregon (NPS-OR).

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Unknown
Comments: No information was found that states that this species directly or indirectly affects rare or vulnerable native species or ecological communties, or that it threatens outstanding examples of common ecological communities.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Buddleja davidii is known from outside of cultivation from many states in the northeast and the southeast. It has also invaded states in the west, including Oregon, Washington, California, Hawaii and Puerto Rico (Kartesz 1999). It also occurs in British Columbia (Kartesz 1999) as an exotics, however, it is not included in the estimated range size.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This species is known to be a problem in Oregon, Washington (NPS-OR) and Rhode Island (Starr and Loope 2003). It is also being carefully watched in Hawaii, is a target weed for control on the island of O'ahu (Starr et al. 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Based on TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Insignificant
Comments: This species usually invades disturbed or waste places in most of its range, however, it does invade riparian ecosystems (Starr et al. 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown
Comments: It is not clear whether this species is expanding its range. This species is becoming more closely watched in certain areas of the country such as the northeast, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaii, but it's full potential is not known (Starr et al. 2003).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Buddleja davidii can live in a number of different climates including oceanic, continental and Mediterranean (Starr et al. 2003). This species is already known from places in the United States that fit these climatic conditions, however, there are states, such at Maine south to New Hampshire in the northeast, where this species is not documented yet. There are other states with 'continental climate conditions' where this species is not yet reported (Alabama and Mississippi).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High significance
Comments: Seeds of this species are very small, light and winged. This species is carried great distances by the wind (Starr and Loope 2003). It has also been documented that seeds of this species have been carried by cars (Hodkinson and Thompson 1997).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: This species seems is forming monocultures in Oregon and Washington (NPSO).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:High significance
Comments: The Native Plant Society of Oregon has rated Buddleja davidii's impact on the state as HIGH. High, according to the Native Plant Society of Oregon means that the species is 'proven to be very invasive locally or nearby in similar native ecosystems'. Also, in the US, this species is a problem in the Northeast (Starr et al. 2003). This species has invaded protected areas, including national parks, in New Zealand. This species occurs widely in New Zealand and is naturalized in the North Island and portion of the South Island (Brockerhoff et al. 1999). One report indicates that seedlings can occur in the several millions of plants per hectare; populations self thin to 2,500 plants per hectare at maturity (age 10). Also, in NZ, this species acts like a pioneer and is eventually replaced by native species if disturbance isn't continuous (Csurhes and Edwards 1998). This species is also highly invasive in Europe and is listed as one of the top 20 weeds in England (Starr et al. 2003). This species has also invaded natural areas in Victoria, Australia where it has naturalized and is in small populations (Csurhes and Edwards 1998). This species full potential has not been seen in the United States and Australia, but is a major weed on other continents.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: This species has invaded riparian ecosystems in the area of interest, the United States, and specifically the Pacific Northwest (NPSO). It also invades riparian ecosystems in New Zealand (Starr et al. 2003) and Australia (Csurhes and Edwards 1998).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:High significance
Comments: This species comes to maturity in less than one year; produces up to 3 million very small, light seeds per year; and seeds can be dormant in the soil for many years (Binggeli 1999).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Low significance
Comments: Removal by hand isn't recommended because this species prefers disturbed areas and this may actually promote growth. Cutting and then treating with herbicide has been effective. In New Zealand, a species of weevil, Cleopus japonicus, eats the plant causing reduction in stem length and biomass, and sometimes death of the plant (Starr et al. 2003).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Low significance
Comments: This species reaches maturity at 10 years and in New Zealand, if left (without continued disturbance) alone native vegetation eventually replaces the buddleja (Csurhes and Edward 1998). No information about minimum time commitment in the US was found, however, one might suspect that it would similar.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown
Comments: No information was found that mentions collateral damage to native species.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Comments: Information on accessibility of invaded areas was not found.
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Binggeli, P. 1999. Woody Plant Ecology Website. page on Buddleja davidii. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantExology/docs/web-bud.htm?. Accessed 1/29/2004.

  • Brockerhoff, E. G., T. M. Withers, M. Kay and W. Faulds. 1999. Impact of the defoliator Cleopus japonicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Buddleja davidii in the labortory. Proc. 52nd N. Z. Plant Protection Conf. 1999: 113-118. Accessed online at: http://www.hortnet.co.nz.

  • Csurhes, S. and R. Edwards. 1998. Potential Environmental Weeds in Australia. Appendix C, in Candidate Species for Preventitive Control. National Weeds Program, Queensland Department of Natural Resources. Online. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/potential/appendix-c-b-.html. Accessed 2004.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.D. Straley, D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1998. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 2, Dicotyledons (Balsaminaceae through Cucurbitaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For. Res. Program. 401pp.

  • Hodkinson, D. J. and K. Thompson. 1997. Plant dispersal: the role of man. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1484-1496.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Native Plant Society of Oregon, Emerald Chapter. 2002. Invasive Gardening and Landscaping Plants of the Southern Willamette Valley. Online at http://www.emeraldnpso.org/inv_ornmtls.html. Accessed 2004, January, February, March.

  • Planty-Tabacchi, A., E. Tabacchi, R. J. Naiman, C. Deferrari and H. Decamps. 1996. Invasbility of species-rich communities in riparian zones. Conservation Biology 10(2): 598-607.

  • Starr, F., K. Starr and L. Loope. 2003. Plants of Hawai'i Reports- Buddleia davidii. United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division. Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawaii. Online. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/buddleia_davidii_htm. Accessed 1/29/04.

  • Tallent-Halsell, N.G., and M.S. Watt. 2009. The invasive Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush). Botanical Review 75: 292-325.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

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