Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum - Pease & Moore
Lanceleaf Grapefern
Other English Common Names: Narrow Triangle Moonwort
Other Common Names: lanceleaf grapefern
Synonym(s): Botrychium angustisegmentum (Pease & Moore) Fern. ;Botrychium lanceolatum ssp. angustisegmentum (Pease & Moore) Clausen
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum Pease & Moore (TSN 526949)
French Common Names: botryche à segments étroits
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154775
Element Code: PPOPH01071
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychium
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 01Nov2011
Rounded Global Status: T4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: B. lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum is fairly common over a relatively broad range. It is threatened primarily by logging of mature hardwood forest.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4 (08Oct2011)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SNR), Maine (SU), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (S2S3), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S2), New York (S4), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S1), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (S4), Virginia (SH), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada New Brunswick (S3), Newfoundland Island (SH), Nova Scotia (S2S3), Ontario (S3), Prince Edward Island (S1), Quebec (S3), Saskatchewan (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species occurs in the following provinces and states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Nova Scotia, New York, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, and West Virginia (Clausen, 1946; Cody, 1978; Sutherland, 1978; Tryon et al. 1953, Wagner and Wagner, 1993; & State Natural Heritage Files). It is most rare in the states which are on the southern edge of its distribution.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: 17 EOs even in Minnesota, which is at the edge of a fairly broad range.

Population Size Comments: Because individuals of a Botrychium species are very similar genetically, abundance is estimated by numbers of aboveground plants rather than by numbers of genetic individuals. Abundance is also difficult to determine because each root base does not send up a stem every year.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The principal threat to Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum is logging of mature hardwood forests. Deforestation can result in soil dessication, which is a threat to this element (Sutherland 1987). Forest clearing for second home development also poses a threat (J. Concannon, pers. comm. 1996).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Only 1 of 4 records in Virginia is presumed extant, indicating a decline at the edge of the global range. However, the number of newly found specimens in its core area greatly exceeds the number lost on the range periphery.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to loss of shaded habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: This species occurs in the following provinces and states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Nova Scotia, New York, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, and West Virginia (Clausen, 1946; Cody, 1978; Sutherland, 1978; Tryon et al. 1953, Wagner and Wagner, 1993; & State Natural Heritage Files). It is most rare in the states which are on the southern edge of its distribution.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MA Berkshire (25003), Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013)*, Hampshire (25015)
MN Aitkin (27001), Beltrami (27007), Carlton (27017), Cass (27021), Cook (27031), Crow Wing (27035), Itasca (27061), Kanabec (27065), Lake (27075), Mille Lacs (27095), Morrison (27097)*, Pine (27115), St. Louis (27137)
NC Burke (37023), Macon (37113), McDowell (37111)
NJ Morris (34027), Passaic (34031), Sussex (34037)
RI Kent (44003)*, Providence (44007)*
VA Giles (51071)*, Grayson (51077)*, Smyth (51173)*
WV Pocahontas (54075), Preston (54077)*, Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Chicopee (01080204)+*, Westfield (01080206)+, Narragansett (01090004)+*, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Rondout (02020007)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+
03 South Fork Catawba (03050102)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+*, Upper New (05050001)+*, Middle New (05050002)+*, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Gauley (05050005)+*
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+, Leech Lake (07010102)+, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Pine (07010105)+, Crow Wing (07010106)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+*, Rum (07010207)+, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+
09 Vermilion (09030002)+, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: An erect perennial herb up to 30 cm tall with a single pinnate frond (sterile blade) 1.5-9 cm long and a fertile blade 1.5-4.5 cm long. The fertile frond does not arise separately near the ground but appears to be a continuation of the single vertical stipe of the sterile frond. The roots are clustered and fleshy.
Technical Description: Stems producing one frond per season; main roots mostly 0.5-1 mm in diameter; stipes 2-21 cm long. Fertile leaf blade 1.5-9 cm long; sporangia 0.7-1 mm diameter, slightly immersed, mostly ± separated and exposing sporangiophore midrib. Sterile leaf blade 1.5-4.5 cm long, 1.5-6 cm wide, ovate-lanceolate, truncate to obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, pinnate-pinnatifid to 2-pinnate, with incised, acute pinna apices and entire, acute pinnule and segment apices, the segments narrowly triangular, margins entire, dark green, shiny (Lellinger, 1985; Wagner, 1993; Cody, 1978). n = 45 (Wagner, W. 1955).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum is very similar to B. lanceolatum. var. lanceolatum. Variety angustisegmentum generally has a longer stipe, a larger fertile blade, and smaller sterile blade. Segments are triangular, instead of lanceolate to oblong. This variety is also a species of the northeast, whereas variety lanceolatum is a western plant. This element is also less coarse and broad as European varieties (Pease and Moore, 1906; McCance, 1984; Scoggan, 1978).
Reproduction Comments: This element reproduces by spores. It is not rhizotomous (F. Wagner, pers. comm., 1996).
Ecology Comments: Leaves appearing in late spring or early summer, releasing spores later than most associated species and dying as late as October. Recently discovered sites in Michigan occurred in timbered coniferous forest. These regrew with aspen that later began to die back. In contrast to most occurrences which are usually include only a few individual plants, this species occurs on almost every acre of the Ottawa National Forest with some dense sites of over a 1000 plants/acre over several acres (Penskar, 1996; Nash, 1996; Farrar, 1996).

CT -- Acid talus slope woodland and sphagnum hummock in swamp growing with poison ivy and Botrychium oneidense. Elevation range from 825-840 ft (CT Heritage files, 1995).

MI -- On the Ottawa National Forest this species occurs on almost every acre of the forest. Its density is lowest in the old growth and early successional forest and highest in late second growth forest.

ON -- In mesic deciduous and mixed woodlands including floodplains. Soils are slightly acid, silty clay loams, poorly drained, and have a high organic content. Associated plants include red oaks, black oaks, sugar maple, cherry, white ash, yellow birch, eastern hemlock, Dryopteris intermedia, and Toxicodendron radicans (Sutherland,1987).

RI -- Along ridgetops, elevation 370 ft (RI Heritage files, 1995).

VA -- Cool mesic maple-birch woods; old second growth pasture woods. Elevation 3600 ft (VA Heritage files, 1995).

VT -- It occurs in rich mesic forest with mature sugar maple, white ash, and basswood. It also occurs in Thuja occidentalis swamps (A.V. Gilman, pers. comm. 1995).

WV -- Associated with rich maple-yellow birch woods, choke cherry, crataegus, and B. matricariifolium (WV Heritage files).

Habitat Comments: In woods and on hummocks in swamps, and in cool to warm, mostly rich, subacid soils (Lellinger 1985). May be found in open fields at the northern end of its range (Rhode Island Heritage files 1995). Site elevations range from near sea level to 3600 ft (Wagner, 1993).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Since this Botrychium prefers moist, wooded habitats, timbering and development threaten extant occurrences. However, this element is associated with secondary or tertiary forest regrowth (K. Nash, pers. comm. 1996; A.V. Gilman, pers. comm. 1995) and new habitat could be created by clearing and revegetating an area.
Restoration Potential: Restoration may be possible but recolonization may take many years. Recently discovered sites occur in timbered coniferous forest. These regrew with aspen that later began to die back (K. Nash, pers. comm. 1996). Other sites in Vermont occur on old pastureland that is returning to forest (A.V. Gilman, pers. comm. 1995)

Transplantation has not been successful; relocated and overwintered plants will come up only once (F. Wagner, pers. comm., 1996).

Management Requirements: None identified.
Monitoring Requirements: Sites that have not been visited within the last 5 years should be revisited.
Monitoring Programs: In addition, the Ottawa National Forest Sites could be good sites for monitoring this element.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02May1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO
Management Information Edition Date: 23Jul1996
Management Information Edition Author: WALTON, D. WEST VIRGINIA HERITAGE PROGRAM, ELKINS, WV 26241-0067; PHONE:(304)637-0245
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jul1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): WALTON, D. WVHP

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, M. Dumais et S. Hay 1983. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Syllogeus no 48. Musées nationaux du Canada. Ottawa. 75 p.

  • Chadde, S. and G. Kudray. 2001. Conservation assessment for Narrow Triangle Moonwort (Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum). USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. 55 pp.

  • Clausen, R.T. 1946. Nomenclatural and distributional notes on Botrychium lanceolatum. American Fern Journal. pp. 44-47.

  • Cody, W.J. 1978. Ferns of the Ottawa District. Canada Department of Agriculture, Publication 974.

  • Cody, W.J. 1978. Ferns of the Ottawa District. Publication 974, Canada Department of Agriculture, Research Branch, Ottawa. 112 pp.

  • Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Publication 1829/E, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa. 430 pp.

  • Cody, W.J. et D.M. Britton. 1989. Les fougères et les plantes alliées du Canada. Agriculture Canada, publication 1829/F. 452 p.

  • Data for WCMC Threatened Plants of the World project. 1994. Unpublished notes on state ranks from heritage botanists, sent to L. Kutner at The Nature Conservancy Home Office.

  • Farrar, D.R. 2011. Systematics and Taxonomy of Genus Botrychium. Available at http://www.herbarium.iastate.edu/botrychium/Moonwort-Systematics.pdf

  • Flora of North America Committee. 1993. Flora of North America Volume 2. Oxford Univ. Press.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • GLEASON, H.A. AND A. CRONQUIST. 1963. MANUAL OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK. 810 PAGES.

  • GLEASON,H.A. 1952. THE NEW BRITTON AND BROWN ILLUSTRATED FLORA OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. HAFNER PRESS, NEW YORK. 3 VOLS.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Hough, M. Y. 1983. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, New Jersey. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lellinger, D.B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the U.S. and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 389 pp.

  • Marie-Victorin, Fr. 1964. Flore laurentienne. 2e édition revue par E. Rouleau. Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal. 925 p.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Natural Heritage Program Files. 1996. Unpublished.

  • New York Flora Association. 1990. Preliminary vouchered Atlas of New York State Flora. New York Flora Association, New York State Museum Institute.

  • Ownbey, G. B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 320 pp.

  • Pease, A.S., and A.H. Moore. 1906. Peculiarities of Botrychium lanceolatum in America. Rhodora. p. 229.

  • Peck, J. H. 1982. Ferns and fern allies of the driftless area of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum Press, Contributions in Biology and Geology Book 53, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 140 pp.
     

  • Reznicek, A.A., E.G. Voss, and B.S. Walters. 2011. Michigan Flora Online. University of Michigan. Web. http://michiganflora.net/home.aspx.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Geographie floristique du Quebec-Labrador. Distribution des principales especes vasculaires. In Travaux et Documents du Centre D'Etudes Nordiques. Les Presses de L'Universitet Laval, Quebec.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Géographie floristique du Québec-Labrador : Distribution des principales espèces vasculaires. Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec. 798 p.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • Stensvold, M.C., and D.R. Farrar. 2016. Genetic Diversity in the Worldwide Botrychium lunaria (Ophioglossaceae) Complex, with New Species and New Combinations. Brittonia. (Published online 13 December 2016).

  • Strausbaugh, P. D. and E. L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia, 2nd. ed. Seneca Books, Grantsville, WV 1079 p.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. Annotated Checklist of the Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. In: M.E. Gartshore, D.A. Sutherland and J.D. McCracken. The Natural Areas Inventory of Haldimand-Norfolk, Volume 2. Annotated Lists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe. 152 pp.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. Annotated Checklist of the Plants of Haldimond-Norfolk.

  • Tryon, R.M., D.W. Dunlop, N.C. Fassett, and M.E. Diemer. 1953. The Ferns and Fern Allies of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press.

  • U.S. Forest Service. 2000. Population viability assessment in forest plan revision. Questions for plant population viability assessment panel: Botrychium lanceolatum. United States Forest Service, Region 9, Duluth, Minnesota.

  • Wagner, W. H., Jr., and F. S. Wagner. 1993. Botrychium. Pages 86-101 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Wagner, W.H. and F.S. Wagner. 1993. Ophioglossaceae. In: Flora of North America, Vol. 2, Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Oxford University Press, NY.

  • Williams, E.W., D.R. Farrar, and D. Henson. 2016. Cryptic speciation in allotetraploids: lesssons from the Botrychium matricariifolium complex. American Journal of Botany 103(4): 1-14.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.