Apium graveolens - L.
Wild Celery
Other Common Names: wild celery
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Apium graveolens L. (TSN 182184)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131636
Element Code: PDAPI0A010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Carrot Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Apiales Apiaceae Apium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Apium graveolens
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (19Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Florida (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Missouri (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)
Canada Nova Scotia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZexotic, CAexotic, CTexotic, FLexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, LAexotic, MA, MOexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, SCexotic, SDexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, WAexotic, WVexotic
Canada NSexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: FOOD, Vegetable/potherb, Spice/herb/condiment, MEDICINE/DRUG, Folk medicine, ESTHETIC, Aromatic/perfume/essence
Production Method: Cultivated
Economic Comments: Tuberous bases are used as a vegtable; leaves of the variety silvestre Presl are used for flavouring food. Oil is made from the seeds and used for flavouring, for perfume, and as a fixative. Medicinally, celery is used as a stimulent, stomachic, carminative, febrifuge, emmenagogoue, and for other uses.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Unknown
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Apium graveolens (celery) has escaped from cultivation across much of the region. However, the information available suggests that in most of the region it rarely escapes and only occurs in disturbed areas when it does. It may be more of a problem in California but there is little information. In California, it is widely naturalized and occurs in wet places such as marshes and along streams in the valleys. Apparently, it has invaded one or two habitats elsewhere that it has not yet invaded in the U.S.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 27Jan2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to Eurasia (Hickman 1993).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: In California, Apium graveolens is cultivated and naturalized widely; it occurs in wet places (Hickman 1993). In the Carolinas, it is rare and occurs in disturbed areas, where it has escaped or persists from cultivation (Weakley 2002). In Florida, it is also a rare, escape from cultivation and occurs on disturbed sites (Wunderlin 1998). In Utah, plants are cultivated and rarely escape except in Washington County (Welsh et al. 1993).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No mention of changes in abiotic ecosystem processes or system-wide parameters found in the literature; assumption is that any alterations are not significant or major/irreversible.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: A taprooted perennial herb (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). No mention of major alteration of ecological community structure found in the literature; assumption is that impacts on ecological community structure are not major.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Unknown

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: In California, it is naturalized in marshes or along streams in the valleys at 5 to 1500 feet (Jepson 1936). However, it is not on the CAL-EPPC (1999) list of California exotic plants of greatest ecological concern. In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998). It may possibly have some impacts on elements of conservation significance in California but presumeably it does not often threaten communities or species of conservation significance.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Widespread in the west from Washington and Idaho south to Texas and Oklahoma; also in scattered states in the east from Missouri and Lousiana to Massachusetts and Florida (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Rare in the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998) so presumeably not having many negative impacts there. In the northeast, it is "scarcely persistent" (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Moderate significance
Comments: More than 16 units based on Kartesz (1999), TNC (2001). It occurs in every California floristic province (Baldwin et al. 2004).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: In California, it is naturalized in marshes or along streams in the valleys at 5 to 1500 feet (Jepson 1936). In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:High/Low significance
Comments: In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998). Disturbed areas are not decreasing, therefore it is presumed to be not decreasing.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Roughly 50% of potential range is occupied based on USDA (1990).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Fruit (schizocarp) is 1.5-2 mm in diameter (Hickman 1993).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998). Disturbed areas are not decreasing, therefore it is presumed to be not decreasing.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: In California, it is naturalized in marshes or along streams in the valleys at 5 to 1500 feet (Jepson 1936). In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998). In the northeast, it is "scarcely persistent" (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Moderate significance
Comments: It has invaded salt marshes in Scandanavian and eastern European countries (Wallentinus no date). Salt marshes aren't mentioned as a habitat it has invaded in California (Jepson 1936).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown
Comments: A taprooted perennial herb (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Low significance
Comments: In California, it is naturalized in marshes or along streams in the valleys at 5 to 1500 feet (Jepson 1936). In the Carolinas, Florida, and Utah it occurs in disturbed areas (Weakley 2002; Welsh et al. 1993; Wunderlin 1998). Apparently, it persists without repeated reintroduction.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: A taprooted perennial herb (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Presumeably, control requries less than 10 years.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:High/Low significance
Comments: Celery is widely cultivated (Hickman 1993), so presume at least some accesibility issues.
Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Aug1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): RAKER, C. (TNC-LASP)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baldwin, B.G., S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J. Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti and D.H. Wilken. 2004. Jepson Flora Project, Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics. Regents of the University of California, Berkeley. Online. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson_flora_project.html (Accessed 2004).

  • California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. The CalEPPC List: Exotic Pest Plants of Greatest Ecological Concern in California. Available: http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Pest_Plant_List/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Heywood, V.H. 1971. The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae. Academic Press, New York.

  • Hickman, J. C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1400 pp.

  • Jepson, W. L. 1936. A Flora of California, Volume 2. California School Book Depository. San Francisco.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • Wallentinus, I. No date. Introduced Marine Algae And Vascular Plants In European Aquatic Environments. Department of Marine Botany, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden. Online. Available: http://www.ku.lt/nemo/aqua_app_wallentinus.pdf (accessed 27 January 2004).

  • Weakley, A.S. 2002. July 19-last update. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of July 19, 2002. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/weakley_flora/default.htm. Accessed 2003, April 11.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 806 pp.

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