Abies balsamea - (L.) P. Mill.
Balsam Fir
Other Common Names: balsam fir
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill. (TSN 18032)
French Common Names: sapin baumier
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152370
Element Code: PGPIN01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Conifers and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Coniferophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae Abies
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Abies balsamea
Taxonomic Comments: Abies balsamea is a widespread species of Canada and the northeastern U.S., occurring southward in the Appalachians to West Virginia and adjacent northwestern Virginia. The similar Abies fraseri, of the high mountains of southern Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, differs primarily in its longer, projecting cone-bracts. Plants intermediate between these two species have been called Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis or Abies x phanerolepis; opinions differ on whether they are relicts of the original divergence or recent interspecific hybrids; such plants occur in West Virginia and are reported irregularly northward as far as eastern Canada. LEM 10Aug00.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Nov1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (04Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S1), Iowa (S1), Maine (S5), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S1), New York (S5), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S3S4), Rhode Island (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S5), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (S2), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, IA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada AB, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Litchfield (09005)
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Howard (19089), Winneshiek (19191)
MD Garrett (24023)
NJ Sussex (34037)
VA Madison (51113), Page (51139)
WV Grant (54023), Pocahontas (54075), Randolph (54083), Tucker (54093)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, South Branch Potomac (02070001)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+, Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Gauley (05050005)+
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: Spice/herb/condiment, Beverage (non-alcoholic), Other food, Folk medicine
Economic Comments: Used for colds and pulmonary troubles. Tea of inner bark used for chest pains. Seasoner for other medicines. Fresh inner bark poultice. Young leaves make a good tea. Gum from needles, branches, and cones chewed in B.C.
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): DAP

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • BAKUZIS, E. AND H. HANSEN. 1965. BALSAM FIR OR ABIES BALSAMEA (LINN.) MILLER. A MONOGRAPHIC REVIEW. MN. 445 PP.

  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • FOSTER, J.R. ANF G.E. LANG. 1982. DECOMPOSITION OF RED SPRUCE AND BALSAM FIR BOLES IN THE WHIT MOUNTAINS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. CAN. J. FOR. RES. 12:617-626.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, North of Mexico, Pteridophytes and Symnosperms.Vol. 2. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, Second ed. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp.

  • HORNBECK, J.W. AND R.B. SMITH AND C.A. FEDERER. 1986. GROWTH DECLINE IN RED SPRUCE AND BALSAM FIR RELATIVE TO NATURAL PROCESSES.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Hett, J. M., and O. L. Loucks. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. Unknown source.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Natural Heritage Program Files. 1995. Unpublished data.

  • Natural Heritage Program Files. 1996. Unpublished.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Strausbaugh, P. D. and E. L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia, 2nd. ed. Seneca Books, Grantsville, WV 1079 p.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Second ed. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

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