Zygonopus krekeleri - Causey, 1960
West Virginia Blind Cave Millipede
Synonym(s): Trichopetalum krekeleri (Causey, 1960)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Trichopetalum krekeleri (Causey, 1960) (TSN 570480)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.112275
Element Code: ITUNI05010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Millipedes and Centipedes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Diplopoda Chordeumatida Trichopetalidae Zygonopus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Shear, W. A. 1972. Studies in the milliped order Chordeumida (Diplopoda): a revision of the family Cleidogonidae and a reclassification of the order Chordeumida in the New World. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 144:151-352.
Concept Reference Code: A72SHE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Trichopetalum krekeleri
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Aug2002
Global Status Last Changed: 21Aug2002
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: These millipedes are vulnerable to changes in water quality, hydrology and any changes in the deposition of organic material. Known from only three counties in West Virginia. Population estimated at less than 1000 individuals by the West Virginia Natural Heritage Program in 1991.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (21Aug2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States West Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Known in only the following five West Virginia caves: Dyers Cave, Hardy County; Alpena Cave No. 1 and Bowden Cave, Randolph County; Bennett and Mill Run Caves, Tucker County. Range may be expanded as more caves are surveyed.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: The species is known from only 5 caves in West Virginia.

Population Size: 1 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: The West Virginia Heritage Program in 1991 estimated the species abundance lower than 1,000 individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Any changes in water flow or water quality may impact the cave community. Also any changes in the deposition of organic material, organically rich mud, oligochaetes, etc. which are food sources may affect the community. No known exotics or pests exist in caves.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: The populations are assumed to be stable since caves are very stable communities (Culver pers. comm. 1992), as long as no major alterations to the cave habitat have occurred.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: The populations of these millipedes are geographically isolated and subject to local destructive events. Since these millipedes rely on transitory organic matter from sporadic cave visitors, gating of caves may have serious adverse impacts. This species is also vulnerable to changes in water quality and hydrology (Culver pers. comm. 1994).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Caves in West Virginia and surrounding states need to be surveyed for the species.

Protection Needs: Both the surface and subsurface need to be protected. It is crucial to protect the watershed. Most food enters the cave from surface streams and vertical percolation. These surface streams, along with subsurface streams, are highly integrated drainage basins and are sensitive to degradation of water quality and to hydrological changes.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) Known in only the following five West Virginia caves: Dyers Cave, Hardy County; Alpena Cave No. 1 and Bowden Cave, Randolph County; Bennett and Mill Run Caves, Tucker County. Range may be expanded as more caves are surveyed.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
WV Hardy (54031)*, Randolph (54083)*, Tucker (54093)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Cacapon-Town (02070003)+*
05 Cheat (05020004)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A small, blind and unpigmented cave millipede.
General Description: Causey (1960) gives the following description of this small, blind unpigmented cave millipede. "Length about 8.5 mm. Fourth segment of the sixth leg pair slightly more bowed and the last segment slightly thinner than in Z. WEYERIENSIS." (Causey, 1960).

"The median coxite of the anterior gonopod is membranous and broad, and the lateral coxite is spinous and curved. A small area on the anterior surface of the coxa is covered with minute setae, and the distal part of the membranous lobe is sparsely setose. The longer setae in the median row of three and the three on the disto-lateral lobe of the coxa are straight. The telopodite is in the form of a thick, quadrate lamella. The plumose branch is broad, so short that it is scarcely visible from an anterior view, and the fibrillae are sinuous and sparsely branched. A second, shorter plumose branch can be seen under telopodite." (Causey, 1960).

"The posterior gonopod is composed of the usual two inflated, elongated segments; there is no terminal spine. The appearance is very much as in Z. WEYERIENSIS." (Causey, 1960).

Diagnostic Characteristics: T. KREKELERI "stands distinctly apart from the other known species of the genus. The differences between Z. PACKARDI, Z. WEYERIENSIS , and Z. WHITEI are mainly quantitative. When these three species were first studied, it appeared that subsequent collections might yield forms that would connect them. Then Dr. Barr's large collection with male specimens of three species from 12 additional caves was received. Some variations were found, but they are slight, and in no case can they be regarded as integrades between species. The genus differs markedly from the related genus SCOTERPES, in which the population of almost every cave is taxonomically distinct from that of any other cave." (Causey, 1960).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subterrestrial
Special Habitat Factors: Subterranean obligate
Habitat Comments: Found in caves under rocks, around organic debris or on damp silt banks near streams.
Length: .85 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: The key component to stewardship is protection of water quality.
Restoration Potential: D. C. Culver recommends that care be taken when restoring the cave habitat, as this may lead to the removal of too much of the resource base.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve design for the protection of T. KREKELERI must take into account the protection of the subsurface and surface. Most food comes into the cave from surface streams. These surface streams, along with subsurface streams, are highly integrated drainage basins and are sensitive to degradation of water quality and to hydrological changes. It is crucial to protect the watershed.
Biological Research Needs: Research needs to be conducted on this millipede in regards to its biology and natural history. The effects of human visitation and gating need to be assessed. The genetic status of populations should be studied.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan1994
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Whittaker, J. C.
Management Information Edition Date: 01Mar1992
Management Information Edition Author: BUTTERWORTH, J. SCOTT
Management Information Acknowledgments: West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Ward Road, P.O. Box 67, Elkins, WV 26241.

Dr. David C. Culver, Dept. of Biology, American University, Washington, DC 20016.

Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Mar1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): BUTTERWORTH, S. J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Causey, N. B. 1960. The troglobitic milliped genus ZYGONOPUS (Chordemida, Conotylidae, Trichopetalinae). NY Entomological Soc. 68:69-80.

  • Fong, D.W., D.C. Culver, H.H. Hobbs III and T. Pipan. 2007. The Invertebrate Cave Fauna of West Virginia, Second Edition. West Virginia Speleological Survey Bulletin 16. Barrackville, WV.

  • Holsinger, J.R., R.A. Barody, and D.C. Culver. 1976. The invertebrate cave fauna of West Virginia. West Virginia Speoleological Survey Bulletin, 7: 86 pp.

  • Shear, W. A. 1972. Studies in the milliped order Chordeumida (Diplopoda): a revision of the family Cleidogonidae and a reclassification of the order Chordeumida in the New World. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 144:151-352.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.