Zenaida macroura - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Mourning Dove
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 177125)
French Common Names: tourterelle triste
Spanish Common Names: Paloma Huilota
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104326
Element Code: ABNPB04040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 10801

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae Zenaida
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Zenaida macroura
Taxonomic Comments: Throughout North America, this species exhibits little mtDNA polymorphism and a shallow phylogeographic structure (Ball and Avise 1992). Zenaida graysoni and Z. macroura are considered conspecific by some authors (AOU 1983, but see Baptista et al. 1983). Zenaida macroura and Z. auriculata constitute a superspecies (AOU 1998).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in North and Central America and West Indies; very large population size and number of occurrences; a major game species; relatively stable population; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (29Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Alaska (S3N), Arizona (S5), Arkansas (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S4N,S5B), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S5), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5B,S5N), Kansas (S5B), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S5), Maine (S5B,S5N), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNRB,SNRN), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S5B,S3N), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (S5), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5B), New Mexico (S5B,S5N), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5B,S5N), North Dakota (SNRB), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5B,S5N), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5B), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5B), Utah (S5B,S3N), Vermont (S4B,S5N), Virginia (S5), Washington (S5B,S5N), West Virginia (S5B,S5N), Wisconsin (S5B), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S4?B), Labrador (S3B,SUM), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S5B,S5M,S4N), Newfoundland Island (S3), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Breeding range extends from southern Canada (southwestern and east-central British Columbia to soutern Quebec and Nova Scotia) south to Panama and West Indies. Winter range includes almost all of the breeding range (except notably populations in the north-central portion) and extends south to southern Baja California and throughout the remainder of Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995), and mainly along the Pacific slope of Central America south to Costa Rica and southwestern Panama (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Ridgely and Gwynne 1989).

Introduced (1960s) and established in Hawaii (near Puu Waa Waa, Hawaii).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences.

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but certainly exceeds 100,000,000. Rich et al. (2004) estimated population size at 130,000,000.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Many occurrences have at least good estimated viability.

Overall Threat Impact: Low

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Trend over past 200 years is unknown. Range and abundance increased is some areas (e.g., southern Canada, northeastern United States, West Indies).

Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) for 1966-2007 and for 1980-2007 indicate a stable trend.

Mourning Dove Call Count surveys for 1966-2006 suggest a stable or slightly decreasing trend in the Eastern Management Unit (EMU) and a decreasing trend in the Central Management Unit (CMU) and Western Management Unit (WMU), with the greatest decline in the WMU (Dolton and Rau 2006). During the past 10 years of this data set, WMU trend was stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Breeding range extends from southern Canada (southwestern and east-central British Columbia to soutern Quebec and Nova Scotia) south to Panama and West Indies. Winter range includes almost all of the breeding range (except notably populations in the north-central portion) and extends south to southern Baja California and throughout the remainder of Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995), and mainly along the Pacific slope of Central America south to Costa Rica and southwestern Panama (Stiles and Skutch 1989, Ridgely and Gwynne 1989).

Introduced (1960s) and established in Hawaii (near Puu Waa Waa, Hawaii).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe 2002; NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A bird (dove).
Reproduction Comments: Protracted breeding season. Clutch size is usually 2. Incubation lasts 13-15 days, by both sexes (male diurnally). Young are fed by at least one parent for 27 days (mainly by male after 16 days). Individual pairs may raise 2-5 broods/year. Pair bond usually is life-long.
Ecology Comments: This species forms small to large flocks in the nonbreeding season.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Northern populations arrive in breeding areas in March-April, depart by around mid-September (Terres 1980). Peak southward migration occurs in August in central U.S. Resident populations in south are augmented in northern winter by migrants from northern temperate zone.

Doves banded west of the Continental Divide in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico were recovered primarily south and west of banding areas (34% in Mexico), and recoveries west of the Divide came primarily from bandings west of the main north-south mountain ranges; the cordilleras forming the Divide appear to be impediments to east-west migration (Braun 1979).

Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitats include open woodland, forest edge, cultivated lands with scattered trees and bushes, parks and suburban areas, arid and desert country (generally near water), and second growth (Tropical to Temperate zones). Nests are in trees or shrubs, sometimes on stumps or rocks or on building ledges, or on the ground. Individuals may nest in an old nest of another species or build its own platform of twigs.
Adult Food Habits: Granivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore
Food Comments: About 98% of diet is seeds (Terres 1980). Diet includes a wide variety of wild seeds as well as waste grain (wheat, corn, rye, oats, etc), also some insects. Individuals may fly long distances to water. Feeding occurs mostly on the ground.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 31 centimeters
Weight: 123 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: See Baskett et al. (1993) for information on research and management techniques. Geissler et al. (1987) found that September hunting had no substantial effect on recruitment of fledglings into the population (see also Olson and Braun, 1984, J. Wildl. Manage. 48:1035-1041). Response to burning: more common on burned plots in breeding season in Arizona (Finch et al. 1997).
Monitoring Requirements: See Reeves et al. (1968) for information on capture and banding techniques. See Wakeley et al. (1990) for auditory census method and forms.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Large Doves

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Based on movement patterns of Mourning Doves. Although Mourning Doves had home ranges averaging 3200 hectares in Missouri, most activity was within 1.6 kilometers, or within a circle with a diameter of 3.2 kilometers (Tomlinson et al. 1960).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .35 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on small home ranges of the relatively sedentary (in Texas) White-tipped Dove (Boydstun and de Young 1988); longer movements of other species may represent commuting trips that are not well-suited to the application of Inferred Extent.
Date: 05Dec2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains members of the genera ZENAIDA and LEPTOTILA.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of nonbreeding flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 50 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to create occurrences that are manageable for conservation purposes.
Date: 22Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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