Zenaida asiatica - (Linnaeus, 1758)
White-winged Dove
Other English Common Names: white-winged dove
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 177121)
French Common Names: Tourterelle ailes blanches
Spanish Common Names: Paloma Ala Blanca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100288
Element Code: ABNPB04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 10723

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae Zenaida
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2002. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 119(3):897-906.
Concept Reference Code: A02AOU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Zenaida asiatica
Taxonomic Comments: Here the form on the west coast of South America is considered a distinct species, Zenaida meloda (AOU 2002).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Oct2002
Global Status Last Changed: 08Oct2002
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (08Oct2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2B,S3N), Arizona (S5), California (SNRB,SNRN), Florida (SNA), Kansas (S1S2), Louisiana (S2N), Mississippi (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nevada (S3B), New Mexico (S5B,S5N), North Carolina (SNA), Texas (S5B), Utah (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: southeastern California and southwestern U.S. south to Honduras, locally to western Panama; Bahamas and Greater Antilles; islands of western Caribbean; western South America from southwestern Ecuador to northern Chile. In the U.S., range has expanded northward in recent decades. NON-BREEDING: generally in breeding range, but northern birds mostly migratory. Introduced in southern Florida.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Overall Threat Impact Comments: In southern Texas, declined with destruction of native nesting habitat and shift to less suitable citrus groves in the 1920s and 1930s; overhunting may be the primary factor contributing to the present decline in southern Texas (Swanson and Rappole 1992). Pesticides used on cotton may contaminate water and pose a threat.

Short-term Trend Comments: Arizona population remained stable from the 1980s to mid-1996; stable, increasing, or declining in different areas of Texas (USFWS 1996).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: In Texas, additional habitat needs to be acquired; grackle (predator) control programs can significantly increase dove productivity but are expensive and must be on-going (Swanson and Rappole 1992). See Cottam and Trefethen (1968).

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDING: southeastern California and southwestern U.S. south to Honduras, locally to western Panama; Bahamas and Greater Antilles; islands of western Caribbean; western South America from southwestern Ecuador to northern Chile. In the U.S., range has expanded northward in recent decades. NON-BREEDING: generally in breeding range, but northern birds mostly migratory. Introduced in southern Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AZ, CA, FL, KS, LA, MS, NC, NM, NN, NV, TX, UT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bannock (16005), Bonneville (16019)
UT Washington (49053)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Lower Virgin (15010010)+*
17 Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Usually 2, sometimes 1 or 3-4, eggs are incubated for about 13-14 days. Nestlings are altricial. Young are tended by both adults. May raise a second brood. Often nests in loose colonies; or singly.
Ecology Comments: Gregarious, especially after nesting season. Birds gather in large flocks to feed. Pollinates and disperses seeds of saguaro cactus in Southwest (Olin et al. 1989). Nesting density up to at least 280 pairs/ha under favorable circumstances (see Swanson and Rappole 1992).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Resident throughout most of range, but northern breeding populations are migratory. Arrives in northern breeding areas March-April, departs around mid-September (Terres 1980). Breeders from Texas and eastern Tamaulipas winter in southwestern Mexico and Central America (Swanson and Rappole 1992).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Scrub-shrub wetland
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Old field, Savanna, Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Generally arid regions with scrubby thickets or riverine forest, open cultivated lands with scattered trees, and mangroves (Tropical and Subtropical zones) (AOU 1983); mature citrus groves. Nests in tree, shrub, cactus, or vine.
Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Food Comments: Feeds on wild seeds, grains and fruits. Forages mainly on ground, sometimes in trees. In Jamaica, eats seeds, cactus fruits, and orange seeds (Lack 1976).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 29 centimeters
Weight: 153 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Large Doves

Use Class: Breeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Based on movement patterns of Mourning Doves. Although Mourning Doves had home ranges averaging 3200 hectares in Missouri, most activity was within 1.6 kilometers, or within a circle with a diameter of 3.2 kilometers (Tomlinson et al. 1960).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .35 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on small home ranges of the relatively sedentary (in Texas) White-tipped Dove (Boydstun and de Young 1988); longer movements of other species may represent commuting trips that are not well-suited to the application of Inferred Extent.
Date: 05Dec2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Notes: Contains members of the genera ZENAIDA and LEPTOTILA.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of nonbreeding flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 50 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; set at 10 kilometers to create occurrences that are manageable for conservation purposes.
Date: 22Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Dec1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Breeding Bird Atlas 2000-2006 Homepage. 2009. T.M. Haggerty (editor), Alabama Ornithological Society. Available at http://www.una.edu/faculty/thaggerty/BBA%20website/Index.htm.

  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 2002. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 119(3):897-906.

  • Banks, R. C., C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., J. D. Rising, and D. F. Stotz. 2002. Forty-third supplement to the American Ornithologists Union check-list of North American birds. The Auk 119: 897-906.

  • Behle, W. H., E. D. Sorensen, and C. M. White. 1985. Utah birds: a revised checklist. Occas. Publ. No. 4, Utah Museum of Natural History, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. xv + 108 pp.

  • Behle, W. H., J. B. Bushman, and C. M. White. 1964. Distributional data on uncommon birds in Utah and adjacent states. Wilson Bull. 75: 450-456.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Boydstun, C. P., and C. A. DeYoung. 1988. Movements of white-tipped doves in southern Texas. Southwest. Nat. 33:365-367.

  • Bucher, E. H. 1990. The influence of changes in regional land-use patterns on ZENAIDA dove populations. Pages 291-303 in J. Pinowski and J. D. Summers-Smith, editors. Granivorous birds in the agricultural landscape. Polish Scientific Publisher, Warszawa. 360 pp.

  • Cottam, C., and J. Trefethen, eds. 1968. Whitewings. Princeton. 348 pp.

  • Goodwin, D. 1983. Pigeons and doves of the world. Third edition. British Museum (Natural History), London, and Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca. 363 pp. [496 pp.?]

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Hayward, C. L., C. Cottam, A. M. Woodbury, and H. H. Frost. 1976. Birds of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 1: 229 pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. Univ. Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pp.

  • Johnson, K. P. and D. H. Clayton. 2000. A molecular phylogeny of the dove genus Zenaida: mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Condor 102:864-870.

  • Lack, D. 1976. Island biology illustrated by the land birds of Jamaica. Studies in Ecology, Vol. 3. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 445 pp.

  • Lowery, George H. 1974. The Birds of Louisiana. LSU Press. 651pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Oberholser, H.C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. 2 vols. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin.

  • Olin, G., S. M. Alcorn, and J. M. Alcorn. 1989. Dispersal of viable saguaro seeds by white-winged doves (ZENAIDA ASIATICA). Southwest. Nat. 34:281-284.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Peterson, R. T. 1980. A field guide to the birds of eastern and central North America. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pages.

  • Raffaele, H. A. 1983a. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Fondo Educativo Interamericano, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 255 pp.

  • Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 511 pp.

  • Ridgely, R. S. 2002. Distribution maps of South American birds. Unpublished.

  • Rivera-Milan, F. F. 1992. Distribution and relative abundance patterns of columbids in Puerto Rico. Condor 94:224-238.

  • SWANSON, DAVID A. AND JOHN H. RAPPOLE. 1992. STATUS OF THE WHITE-WINGED DOVE IN SOUTHERN TEXAS. SOUTHWEST. NAT. 37(1):93-97.

  • See SERO listing

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA. 511 pp.

  • Swanson, D. A., and J. H. Rappole. 1992. Status of the white-winged dove in southern Texas. Southwest. Nat. 37:93-97.

  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Tomlinson, R. E., H. M. Wight, and T. S. Baskett. 1960. Migratonal homing, local movement, and mortality of mourning doves in Missouri. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 25:253-267.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 22 July 1996. Migratory bird hunting; proposed frameworks for early-season migratory bird hunting regulations. Federal Register

  • U87LSU02LAUS - Created by EO conversion

  • Walters, R. E., and E. Sorensen (eds.). 1983. Utah bird distribution: latilong study. Publ. No. 83-10, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City. 97 pp.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

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