Zanthoxylum americanum - P. Mill.
Northern Prickly-ash
Other English Common Names: Common Prickly-ash
Other Common Names: common pricklyash
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Zanthoxylum americanum P. Mill. (TSN 505788)
French Common Names: clavalier d'Amérique
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133451
Element Code: PDRUT0L010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rue Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Sapindales Rutaceae Zanthoxylum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Zanthoxylum americanum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Oct1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Zanthoxylum americanum ranges from Oklahoma to southern Canada, east to New England and south to Florida. This weedy species is relatively common in the western portion of the range, though occasional and rare throughout portions of the eastern range. Z. americanum is currently of limited demand in the commercial trade for medicinal plants, however all material in trade is wild-collected.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (28Apr2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SH), Florida (S1), Georgia (S1?), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (S1), Maine (SNA), Maryland (S1S2), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (S4), New York (S5), North Carolina (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (SU), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S2), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Ontario (S5), Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Zanthoxylum americanum grows from Oklahoma north to North Dakota, east to Southern Canada and New England and south to Florida.

Population Size Comments: Abundance is variable across its range, reportedly more common in the western part of the range. Uncommon in Maine (pers. comm. D. Cameron, October 2000). Occasional on stream banks and wet woods in Pennsylvania (Rhoads and Block 2000). Occasional and more locally common in Kentucky, mostly in the Bluegrass region and surrounding Knobs region (pers. comm.D. White, October 2000). Considered rare in North Carolina and Virginia and it is on both states' Watch Lists; there is only one known site in South Carolina.

This species is generally common with populations stable to increasing in Missouri (pers. comm. T. Smith). ). Noted as "weedy" in eastern Nebraska (pers. comm. G. Steinauer, December 2000). Widespread and common in the eastern quarter of Kansas, where one can expect to find at least one population in most managed forests (pers. comm. C. Freeman, December 2000). Found throughout Ohio, with higher abundance in western counties (Cooperrider 1995). Common in Michigan (pers. comm. M. Penskar, December 2000).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: According to Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association, there is currently "limited demand" for this species, which is considered to be "aggressive" in its growth habits (pers. comm., December 2000). The estimated average annual use in medicinal industry ranges from 2,000-5,000 dry pounds and 100% of that total is collected from wild populations (pers. comm. E. Fletcher, 2000).

Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently relatively stable; no reports of significant decline.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Zanthoxylum americanum grows from Oklahoma north to North Dakota, east to Southern Canada and New England and south to Florida.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MEexotic, MI, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bibb (01007)
FL Jackson (12063)
GA Cobb (13067)*, DeKalb (13089), Gwinnett (13135), Jenkins (13165)*, Newton (13217)*
LA Caldwell (22021)
MD Allegany (24001), Frederick (24021)*, Montgomery (24031), Washington (24043)
NH Hillsborough (33011)*
TN Blount (47009), Davidson (47037), Dyer (47045), Lewis (47101)*, Marshall (47117), Maury (47119), Rutherford (47149), Sevier (47155), Wilson (47189)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Nashua (01070004)+*, Merrimack (01070006)+*
02 North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+*
03 Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Upper Ocmulgee (03070103)+, Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)+*, Chipola (03130012)+, Etowah (03150104)+*, Cahaba (03150202)+
05 Stones (05130203)+
06 Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Buffalo (06040004)+*
08 Obion (08010202)+, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Castor (08040302)+, Boeuf (08050001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Zanthoxylum americanum is an aromatic dioecious shrub that produces compound leaves with 5-12 leaflets that smell like lemon when crushed. The branches are covered with short, paired spines, which are interspersed with tiny green yellow flowers that open before the leaves (Foster and Duke 1990).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Zanthoxylum americanum is distinguishable from Z. clava-herculis by the latter having bark with triangular, corky knobs. Z. clava-herculis is also a larger shrub, reaching 30 m tall (Foster and Duke 1990).
Habitat Comments: Zanthoxylum americanum is considered an eastern deciduous forest "endemic" and grows in shaded and partially shaded conditions in medium to low elevations (Porter 1976). It has been recorded on mesic bluffs, deciduous forests, mountains, river banks, stream banks, deciduous thickets and woodlands, moist woods and thickets (Porter 1976, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Production Method: Wild-harvested
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Kelly McConnell

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Coile, N. C. 1998. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plant. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL.

  • Cooperrider, T.S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Foster, S., and J. Duke. 1990. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants- Eastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guides Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 366 pp.

  • Fox, W.S. and J.H. Soper. 1952. The Distribution of some trees and shrubs of the Carolinian Zone of Southern Ontario. Part 1. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 29(Part 2): 67-84.

  • GODFREY, ROBERT K. 1988. TREES, SHRUBS AND WOODY VINES OF NORTHERN FLORIDA AND ADJACENT GEORGIA AND ALABAMA. UNIV. OF GEORGIA PRESS, ATHENS, GA.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hough, M. Y. 1983. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, New Jersey. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Nelson, G. 1996. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press Inc, Sarasota.

  • Nelson, Gil. 1994. The Trees of Florida. A Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, Florida xviii + 338 pp.

  • Porter, D.M. 1976. Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in North America north of Mexico. Brittonia 28(4): 443-447.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 pp.

  • Rhoads, A.F. and T.A. Block. 2000. The Plants of Pennsylvania: An Illustrated Manual. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1061 pp.

  • SMALL, JOHN KUNKEL. 1933. MANUAL OF THE SOUTHEASTERN FLORA. UNIVERSITY OF N. C. PRESS, CHAPEL HILL, N.C. 1554 PAGES + XXII

  • SORRIE, BRUCE. 18 SEPTEMBER 1996. LETTER TO LINDA CHAFIN REGARDING THE RARE AND DISJUNCT PLANT SPECIES AT THE GLADSDEN GLADES.

  • Soper, J.H. and M.L. Heimburger. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 495 pp.

  • Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Soc. Nat. Hist. Del. 313 pp.

  • WUNDERLIN, R.P., B.F. HANSEN, E.L. BRIDGES. 1996. ATLAS OF FLORIDA VASCULAR PLANTS: COMPACT DISK (CD-ROM) FOR USE ON WINDOWS 95, WINDOWS 3.1, AND MACINTOSH. INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMATIC BOTANY, DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA, TAMPA, FLORIDA 33612-5150. 813-974-2359.

  • Ward, D.B., and A.K. Gholson. 1987. The hidden abundance of Lepuropetalon spathulatum (Saxifragaceae) and its first reported occurrence in Florida. Castanea 52:59-67.

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