Xyris panacea - L.C. Anderson & Kral
St. Marks Yellow-eyed-grass
Taxonomic Status: Provisionally accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.835939
Element Code: PMXYR010Y0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Commelinales Xyridaceae Xyris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Anderson, L.C. and R. Kral. 2008. Xyris panacea (Xyridaceae) - A new yellow-eyed grass from the Florida panhandle. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(1): 1-5.
Concept Reference Code: A08AND01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Xyris panacea
Taxonomic Comments: Newly described in 2008, this species was discovered when a severe drought year allowed unprecedented access to plants (Anderdon and Kral 2008).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Feb2010
Global Status Last Changed: 09Feb2010
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: A recently-described species thus far vouchered from five ponds in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Wakulla County, Florida. It is likely present in several other similar ponds in this area that have not yet been surveyed, but the global range is anticipated to remain quite restricted. In most years, occurrences are accessible only by boat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: All currently-known occurrences are within a portion of Wakulla County, Florida (St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge), in the Big Bend area of the Florida panhandle (Anderson and Kral 2008).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Thus far vouchered from five ponds in a small geographic area; presumably present in several other similar ponds that have not yet been surveyed (Anderson and Kral 2008).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: All currently-known occurrences are within a portion of Wakulla County, Florida (St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge), in the Big Bend area of the Florida panhandle (Anderson and Kral 2008).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Wakulla (12129)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Technical Description: From Anderson and Kral (2008): "Robust, solitary to cespitose perennials 7-10(-13) dm long, the bases typically slightly bulbous, firm, buried in a mucky, often submersed, substratum, thus periodically producing (on larger plants) elongate ascending branches (internodes) and new "rosettes," the older, more basal nodes producing dense mats of pale, spongy roots, whereas new nodes produce spreading-arching stolons tipped with new plants. Principal leaves subdistichously in narrow fans, ca. 32-45(-50) cm long, longer than the scape sheaths, entire, multicostulate, green proximally shading to red, flat or slightly twisted, 3-5(-8) mm wide, 1-2.5 times shorter than the sheathes, gradually narrowed to incurved-acute tips; sheathes entire, narrowly convex at very base, there laterally 1-11.5 cm wide, lustrous dark red aging red-brown or deep brown, distally keeled, gradually narrowing into blade, reddish shading green, eligulate. Scape sheaths shorter than principal leaves, proximally convolute, sharply keeled, lustrous brown or red-brown, twisted, shallowly multicostate, distally opening to an erect, keeled blade. Scapes slender, erect, 60-115(-130) cm long, red-brown shading to green distally, oval or elliptic in cross-section and 1-1.2 mm wide with one firm, smooth costa. Spikes usually narrowly cylindric, also narrowly ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid, 2-4(-4.5) cm long, obtuse, multibracteate, the bracts imbricate in high spiral, convex, ecarinate (except sometimes with carinate basal pair), broadly to narrowly obovate, entire and distinct dorsal areas. Sterile bracts several, shorter than the fertile and grading into them; fertile bracts 7-8 mm, lustrous dark to pale brown, in contrast to the subapical, broadly ovate to elliptic, gray-brown to dark green dorsal areas. Lateral sepals free, narrowly oblanceolate, 7-8.5 mm long, inequilateral, the keel above middle (often) pilose, thence distally increasingly lacerociliate or pilose-ciliate, with tip acute and slightly to noticeably exserted. Petal blades broadly obovate, 8-9.5 mm long, 6-7 mm wide, apex shallowly rounded, denticulate. Staminodia 3-4.5 mm long, bibrachiate, branches elongate-penicillate. Anthers oblong, 2.5-3 mm long, on stout filaments 0.5-0.8 mm long. Styles 4.5-5 mm long, first ascending, then spreading horizontally between petals with age. Capsules narrowly obovoid, ca. 5 mm long, adaxial side plane, abaxial side convex; placentation 3-parietal. Seeds narrowly to broadly fusiform, 0.7-0.8 mm long, light brown, translucent, longitudinally strongly multiribbed with numerous finer, straight or diagonal connecting lines." Blooms from late June to early October.
Diagnostic Characteristics: From Anderson and Kral (2008):
A suite of vegetative and floral features distinguish X. panacea. The dark red stem bases are somewhat bulbous and firm (being pale green and soft in X. fimbriata or pale green and mucilagionous in X. smalliana); larger plants have stout vertical, rhizome-like stems and more delicate stolons. The flowering scapes are smooth with weakly developed ribs below the spikes. The spikes are cylindric, longer than those of any other Xyris in North America. Flowers open earlier in the day and are larger than those of other Xyris species (equally large petals are found in X. caroliniana, but that species differs in habitat and morphology). The horizontally spreading style branches in X. panacea may be unique.
X. fimbriata is a common associate of similar habit and pigmentation. However, it has two scabrid scape costae (rather than a single, smooth one), with spikes mostly shorter and of broader outline, with lateral sepals strongly exserted, their keels densely fimbriate.
X. stricta also occurs in the same general area (though not as an associate). It is also a tall species with similarly ascending, long-sheathed, slender-bladed leaves and similar pigmentation; and it also has narrowly ellipsoidal to subcylindric spikes with similar design of bracts. However, X. stricta has scapes distally broader, flatter, actually 2-edged, its lateral sepals are broader, with broader, firmer, ciliolate keels whose tips are not exserted; its seeds are typically farinose.
Flowers of X. panacea are open approximately 11:30am-4pm, whereas flowers of X. fimbriata are open approximately 1-3pm and flowers of X. smalliana open around 5pm.

Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: The habitat of this species has been described as "coastal depression ponds," "basin lakes," and "flatwoods lakes." Plants grow either in mucky, loosely matted sandy loam in shallow depression ponds in longleaf pinewoods (with stem bases submerged in 10 cm or more of water) or in poorly congealed loam of floating islands in those depression ponds (with stem bases only slightly submerged). Some ponds are ringed with a thicket of Cyrilla racemiflora, whereas others are bounded by Hypericum fasciculatum. Associated species include Bacopa caroliniana, Burmannia biflora, Cyrilla racemiflora, Decodon verticillatus, Drosera intermedia, Eleocharis baldwinii, Eleocharis elongata, Eleocharis equisetoides, Eriocaulon compressum, Fuirena breviseta, Fuirena scirpoidea, Habenaria repens, Hydrocotyle bonariensis, Hypericum fasciculatum, Lachnanthes caroliana, Ludwigia alata, Lycopodiella appressa, Mayaca fluviatilis, Myriophyllum laxum, Nuphar lutea ssp. orbiculata, Nymphaea odorata, Nymphoides aquatica, Panicum verrucosum, Pontederia cordata, Rhynchospora careyana, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora tracyi, Sagittaria lancifolia, Scleria reticularis, Triadenum virginicum, Utricularia floridana, Utricularia juncea, and Utricularia purpurea (Anderson and Kral 2008).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gravuer, K.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anderson, L.C. and R. Kral. 2008. Xyris panacea (Xyridaceae) - A new yellow-eyed grass from the Florida panhandle. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(1): 1-5.

  • Anderson, L.C. and R. Kral. 2008. Xyris panacea (Xyridaceae) - a new yellow-eyed grass from the Florida panhandle. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2 (1): 1-5.

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