Xyris louisianica - Bridges & Orzell
Kral's Yellow-eyed-grass
Other English Common Names: Louisiana Yellow-eyed-grass
Other Common Names: Louisiana yelloweyed grass
Synonym(s): Xyris stricta var. obscura Kral
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Xyris louisianica Bridges & Orzell (TSN 505782)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.149968
Element Code: PMXYR010R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Commelinales Xyridaceae Xyris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Xyris louisianica
Taxonomic Comments: Xyris louisianica resembles X. stricta and X. ambigua, but has several consistently different features. It has a darker plant base, narrower leaves, and later flowering time than X. ambigua. X. louisianica grows solitary or in small clumps, has a flattened scape apex obviously narrower than the spike, and has light-colored mature seeds vs X. stricta which grows densely cespitose, has a flattened scape apex almost as broad as the spike, and has dark-colored mature seeds. FNA (vol. 22, 2000) includes X. louisianica (= X. stricta var. obscura) as a variety of X. stricta.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Oct2018
Global Status Last Changed: 10Oct2018
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Xyris louisianica is endemic to the Gulf Coastal Plain, and known from widely scattered populations that are most frequent in southwestern Louisiana and adjacent southeast Texas. There are more than 21 occurrences but some haven't been surveyed for more than 25 years. The species requires fire to maintain its habitat. It is unknown if some sites,not surveyed for many years, have declined due to succession.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1), Louisiana (S3), Mississippi (S1), Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Xyris louisianica is endemic to the Gulf Coastal Plain, from the Florida Panhandle to east Texas. In Florida it has been found in Bay, Escambia, Liberty, Okaloosa, and Santa Rosa Counties. In Alabama it has been found in Baldwin, Escambia, Monroe, and Washington Counties. In Mississippi it has been found in Forrest, George, Hancock, Pearl River, Perry, Stone, and Wayne Counties. In Louisiana it has been found in Beauregard, Calcasieu, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Vernon, and Washington Parishes. In Texas it has been found in Hardin, Liberty, Newton, and Tyler Counties (NatureServe Network Database as of October 2018, SEINet 2018).

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: More that 21 locations of Xyris louisianica were cited in Bridges & Orzell (1987). Additional locations have been found since then, but very few new populations have been found in the last 10 years (NatureServe Network Database as of October 2018). Populations that have not been seen in more than 25 years and are not protected and managed with prescribed fire, may no longer be extant.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, succession due to lack of fire, and certain intensive forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Wet flatwoods and savannas are threatened by silvicultural practices that alter the hydrology (making sites drier) and do not include adequate prescribed fire. Off road vehicles threaten open savanna wetland which are accessible. Invasive species threaten Xyris louisianica, especially feral hogs, cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), and tallow tree or popcorn tree (Triadica sebifera).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <50% to increase of <25%
Short-term Trend Comments: Over the past decade, some large populations on protected sites have been managed with prescribed fire which may have increased the number of plants. Other sites may have continued declines, without appropriate management for the wet savanna or hillside seepage ecosystems.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 70-80%
Long-term Trend Comments: Many wet savannas have been converted to various other land uses, such as for intensive forestry.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Xyris louisianica is fire adapted, it especially benefits from growing season prescribed fire.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Xyris louisianica is endemic to the Gulf Coastal Plain, from the Florida Panhandle to east Texas. In Florida it has been found in Bay, Escambia, Liberty, Okaloosa, and Santa Rosa Counties. In Alabama it has been found in Baldwin, Escambia, Monroe, and Washington Counties. In Mississippi it has been found in Forrest, George, Hancock, Pearl River, Perry, Stone, and Wayne Counties. In Louisiana it has been found in Beauregard, Calcasieu, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Vernon, and Washington Parishes. In Texas it has been found in Hardin, Liberty, Newton, and Tyler Counties (NatureServe Network Database as of October 2018, SEINet 2018).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, LA, MS, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Bay (12005), Escambia (12033), Liberty (12077), Santa Rosa (12113)
LA Allen (22003), Beauregard (22011), Calcasieu (22019)
MS Hancock (28045), Perry (28111), Stone (28131)
TX Hardin (48199), Liberty (48291)*, Newton (48351), Tyler (48457)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachicola (03130011)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Perdido (03140106)+, Black (03170007)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
08 Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+, West Fork Calcasieu (08080205)+, Lower Calcasieu (08080206)+
12 Lower Sabine (12010005)+, Village (12020006)+, Pine Island Bayou (12020007)+*, Lower Trinity (12030203)+*, North Galveston Bay (12040203)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Afternoon-flowering, yellow-eyed grass
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Acid, clay-based wetland longleaf pine savannas on Quaternary terrace sufaces, primarily the Montgomery formation. Microhabitats for this plant include seasonally wet depressions, shallow swales, ditches and roadsides adjacent to the savannas. Less frequent on Miocene age surfaces to north and absent from coastal praires to south (Bridges and Orzell 1987). Seepage slope, wet prairie, wet flatwoods. Clayey substrate.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Oct2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Amoroso, J.L. (1994), rev. J. Beckman (1997), rev. Nordman (2018)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 10Oct2018
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nordman, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bridges, E. L., and S. L. Orzell. 1987. A new species of Xyris (sect. Xyris) from the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  • Bridges, Edwin L. and Steve L. Orzell. 1987. A new species of Xyris (sect. Xyris) from the Gulf Coastal Plain. Phytologia 64(1):56-61.

  • Bridges, Edwin. 2005. Assessment of biodiversity and conservation status priorities for pitcher plant bogs and wetland savannas of the Apalachicola National Forest. Unpublished report to the US Forest Service. Botanical and Ecological Consultant. Bremerton, WA.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 352 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Philipps, T. 2008. Botany Report for Threatened and Endangered Species, Sensitive Species, and Management Indicator Species, includes Biological Evaluation and Management Indicator Species Reports, Upland Island Wilderness Fuels Reduction Project, Angelina and Jasper Counties, Texas. Forest Supervisors Office, National Forests and Grasslands of Texas. Online. Available: https://www.fs.usda.gov/nfs/11558/www/nepa/40083_FSPLT1_023378.pdf (Accessed 2018)

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Southwest Environmental Information Network (SEINet). 2018. Collections Databases. Online. Available: http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/ (accessed 2018).

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