Xyris longisepala - Kral
Kral's Yellow-eyed-grass
Other Common Names: Kral's yelloweyed grass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Xyris longisepala Kral (TSN 39110)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133782
Element Code: PMXYR010E0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Commelinales Xyridaceae Xyris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Xyris longisepala
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species. Often found with Xyris jupicai, a similar but more common plant.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Jul2009
Global Status Last Changed: 28Jul2009
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to margins of ponds and lakes in the Florida panhandle and adjacent southern Alabama; total range is not well understood, but most known occurrences are in Washington and Bay counties, Florida. Approximately 90 occurrences have been mapped, although some are in close proximity; the vast majority are in Florida with just two in Alabama. Over half of known occurrences are in managed areas (mostly the Ecofina Creek Water Management Area), and some of these have abundant plants. Threats include residential development, which can result in clearing of lakeshore vegetation. Other threats include erosion into ponds from surrounding uplands and adjacent roads and ORV use on and near pond shores. The Alabama occurrences appear to be declining.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Florida (S2S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to margins of ponds and lakes in the Florida panhandle and adjacent southern Alabama; the total range is not well understood. Most known occurrences are in Washington and Bay counties, Florida, with scattered additional occurrences in Okaloosa, Walton, and Leon counties, Florida and in Covington County, Alabama.

Area of Occupancy: 126-2,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Using a 2 x 2 km grid, approximately 48 grid cells are occupied.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 90 occurrences have been mapped, with 1 of these considered historical. Some of the occurrences are in close proximity; the total may be closer to 50-60 if closely adjacent sites were considered the same occurrence. The vast majority of known sites are in Florida, with just 2 in Alabama.

Population Size Comments: Some sites with hundreds or thousands of plants have been counted; many other sites where plants are known to be "abundant" have not yet been censused.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Many sites are considered to have excellent or good viability, having abundant plants and being located within managed areas.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The clearing and mowing of vegetation around pond edges is a severe threat that has been noted for several occurrences; these actions most often occur in association with residential development. Disturbance of the surrounding upland matrix is also a threat, as it can lead to increased erosion into the ponds; disturbance can result from activities such as forestry operations, upland development, and maintenance and use of adjacent roads. Other threats include increased recreational use of the ponds, particularly ORV use on and near pond shores.

Short-term Trend Comments: The two Alabama occurrences appear to be declining.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow to narrow.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Habitat is restricted, though a bit less so than that of some other rare species with which it often co-occurs, such as Hypericum lissophloeus.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to margins of ponds and lakes in the Florida panhandle and adjacent southern Alabama; the total range is not well understood. Most known occurrences are in Washington and Bay counties, Florida, with scattered additional occurrences in Okaloosa, Walton, and Leon counties, Florida and in Covington County, Alabama.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Covington (01039)
FL Bay (12005), Leon (12073), Okaloosa (12091), Wakulla (12129), Walton (12131), Washington (12133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A tufted, wiry herb with fibrous roots. Leaves are numerous, linear, up to 25 cm in length, and thinly erect. 20-30 flowers are borne in a compact spike at the end of the flowering stem. The flowers have 3 yellow petals. Flowers July-November.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinctive features include flower stalks 30-90 cm tall, pinkish leaf bases, fringed lateral sepals visible outside the bracts, and flowers that open mid-day (Chafin 2000). Xyris longisepala is similar to X. smalliana. Compared to X. smalliana, X. longisepala is a shorter plant with narrower leaves and scapes. Its spikes are shorter and more often oblong, the flowers have much shorter petals, and the seeds are smaller and differently ribbed. Although there is some overlap in the time of day when flowering, X. longisepala flowers tend to unfold around mid-day, while those of X. smalliana unfold toward evening (Kral 1983, Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2000).
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, TEMPORARY POOL
Habitat Comments: Moist to wet sandy shores of limesink lakes and ponds and of sandhill upland lakes. This species germinates profusely during low water conditions and can become locally abundant around the sandy fluctuating lakeshore margin. Plants can be patchy, occurring where there are gaps in the shrub vegetation (e.g. Hypericum lissophloeus), although they sometimes form more extensive meadows.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Aug1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cooper, S.T., rev. K. Gravuer (2009)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Center for Biological Diversity. 2010. Petition to list 404 aquatic, riparian and wetland species from the southeastern United States as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Petition submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Chafin, L. G. 2000. Field guide to the rare plants of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. [http://www.fnai.org/FieldGuide/]

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 352 pp.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • RADFORD, A., H. AHLES AND C. BELL. 1968 MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS. THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS CHAPEL HILL. 1183 PP + LXI.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011m. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened. Federal Register 76(187):59836-59862.

  • WARD, D.B. (ED). 1979. RARE AND ENDANGERED BIOTA OF FLORIDA, VOLUME 5: PLANTS. UNIVERSITY PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Ward, D.B., ed. 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. Vol. 5: Plants. Univ. Presses of Florida, Gainesville.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, FL 32611.

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