Xiphophorus hellerii - Heckel, 1848
Green Swordtail
Synonym(s): Xiphophorus helleri Heckel, 1848
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel, 1848 (TSN 647013)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105074
Element Code: AFCNC06010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliidae Xiphophorus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Xiphophorus helleri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNA), Florida (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Nevada (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Native on Atlantic slope from Rio Nautla, Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Honduras. Established in Trudeau and Beaverhead Rock ponds, Madison County, Montana; Warms Springs Creek, Clark County, Idaho; Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Teton County, Wyoming (Courtenay et al. 1987); in canals near Tampa, Hillsborough county, Florida; and (as a hybrid with southern platyfish) Indian spring, Clark County, Nevada; abundant at some localities (Page and Burr 1991). Has been collected, but is not known to be presently established, in Alberta, Arizona, and California (Robins et al. 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Native on Atlantic slope from Rio Nautla, Veracruz, Mexico, to northwestern Honduras. Established in Trudeau and Beaverhead Rock ponds, Madison County, Montana; Warms Springs Creek, Clark County, Idaho; Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Teton County, Wyoming (Courtenay et al. 1987); in canals near Tampa, Hillsborough county, Florida; and (as a hybrid with southern platyfish) Indian spring, Clark County, Nevada; abundant at some localities (Page and Burr 1991). Has been collected, but is not known to be presently established, in Alberta, Arizona, and California (Robins et al. 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZexotic, FLexotic, IDexotic, NVexotic, WYexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Live bearer.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Habitat Comments: Lotic habitats in native range. Apparently has little tolerance for brackish water. North America: warm springs and their effluents, weedy canals, and ponds (Page and Burr 1991).
Length: 4 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Has been used in carcinogenesis testing (Metcalfe 1989); suitable for use in sophisticated genetic analyses (Powers 1989).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Livebearers (Poeciliids)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Alternate Separation Procedure: Each spring system that is undivided by a barrier constitutes a single distinct occurrence. Otherwise, use a separation distance of 10 km for any type of aquatic habitat.
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 05Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Courtenay, W. R., Jr., et al. 1987. Records of exotic fishes from Idaho and Wyoming. Great Basin Nat. 47:523-526.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Meffe, G. K., and F. F. Snelson, Jr., editors. 1989. Ecology and evolution of livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 453 pp.

  • Metcalfe, C. D. 1989. Tests for predicting carcinogenicity in fish. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1):111-129.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Powers, D. A. 1989. Fish as model systems. Science 246:352-358.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

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