Xema sabini - (Sabine, 1819)
Sabine's Gull
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Xema sabini (Sabine, 1819) (TSN 176866)
French Common Names: mouette de Sabine
Spanish Common Names: Gaviota Cola Hendida, Gaviota de Sabine
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106341
Element Code: ABNNM06010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 10799

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae Xema
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Xema sabini
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N4N,N5M (15Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5B), Arizona (S2M), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Massachusetts (S1N), Michigan (SNRN), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), Oregon (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (SUM), British Columbia (SNRM), Manitoba (SNA), Northwest Territories (S4B), Nunavut (S4S5B,S4S5M), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (S3M), Saskatchewan (S4M,S4N), Yukon Territory (S3M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: Arctic coasts and islands from western Alaska east through arctic Canada, Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Siberia. Nonbreeders occur in summer to northern Ellesmere Island (probably breeding), central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, northern Ontario, and northeastern Quebec. NORTHERN WINTER: at sea in eastern Pacific, Panama south to central Chile; less commonly in Atlantic (primarily tropical areas); especially in upwelling areas of Humboldt Current off western South America and Benguela Current off Southwest Africa (AOU 1983, Johnson and Herter 1989).

Short-term Trend Comments: See Evans (1984) for status in Greenland.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: Arctic coasts and islands from western Alaska east through arctic Canada, Greenland, Spitsbergen, and Siberia. Nonbreeders occur in summer to northern Ellesmere Island (probably breeding), central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, northern Ontario, and northeastern Quebec. NORTHERN WINTER: at sea in eastern Pacific, Panama south to central Chile; less commonly in Atlantic (primarily tropical areas); especially in upwelling areas of Humboldt Current off western South America and Benguela Current off Southwest Africa (AOU 1983, Johnson and Herter 1989).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, ID, IL, KS, MA, MI, NC, NM, NY, OR, SD, TX, UT, VT, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Fremont (16043), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Eggs are laid from mid-June to early July. Clutch size is 2-3. Incubation, by both sexes, last 20-23 days, sometimes up to 25 days. Clutch initiation dates from 14 June to 3 July on Southampton Island, Hudson Bay; hatching dates 6 to 22 July (Stenhouse et al. 2001, Abraham 1986). Nesting strongly influenced by completion of snowmelt (Stenhouse et al. 2001). Some can fly at 30 days. Usually nests in small colonies, may also nest in single pairs (Terres 1980, Abraham 1986).
Ecology Comments: Often nests in association with Arctic Terns (defensive behavior of terns may enhance reproductive success of gulls).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Common migrant off west coast, uncommon along shore; very rare migrant, mostly juveniles, on east coast and in interior (National Geographic Society 1983). Migrates off Pacific coast of Costa Rica August-November and March-June (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Arrives in Greenland in June, departs August-September (Evans 1984). Arrives in Beaufort Sea area late May-early June; departs beginning mid- to late August though some may remain into late September (Johnson and Herter 1989).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Tundra
Habitat Comments: NONBREEDING: primarily pelagic, casually along coasts or in inland waters (AOU 1983). BREEDING: Nests in wet meadows and salt-grass flats, wet tundra, along coasts or on islands (barrier island or island of tundra lake or pond). Nests on the ground, in a depression lined with grasses.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Feeds mainly on fishes, crustaceans, insects, and worms. Feeds at sea during the winter. Forages along mud flats and in tundra pools during the breeding season. Follows ships and feeds on refuse.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 34 centimeters
Weight: 205 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Seabirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Map foraging areas as separate polygons if they are separated from the breeding colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Where colonies are closer than 5 kilometers, separate occurrences may be created if research shows little genetic mixing between colonies.
Separation Justification: Occurrences include nesting and foraging areas, but occurrence separations are based on nesting areas (i.e., distance between nesting areas, regardless of foraging locations). Hence, different occurrences may overlap.

Occurrences are not based on discrete populations or metapopulations. Instead, the separation distance is arbitrarily small such that occurrences are of of practical size for data management purposes.

Evidence from a number of species of seabirds indicates that even though the 'home ranges' of individual nesting seabirds may be immense when foraging trips are taken into account, little movement or feeding overlap may occur between nearby colonies. For example, Thick-billed Murres may commute up to 170 kilometers one way on a feeding trip from the colony, but birds from a colony only 8 kilometers away may forage in a completely different direction; even birds from different sub-colonies only 1.5 kilometers apart mostly fed in completely separate areas (Gaston and Hipfner 2000).

Most seabirds have strong breeding site fidelity; e.g., Thick-billed Murres (Gaston and Hipfner 2000, Gaston et al. 1994), Gray-backed Tern (Mostello et al. 2000), Red-footed Booby (Schreiber et al. 1996).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Somewhat arbitrary, but generally very conservative for this group, many members of which travel long distances to foraging grounds.
Date: 20Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Feeding area, Loafing site, Roosting site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of nonbreeding birds (including historical), including nonbreeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 25 birds regularly occur for more than 20 days per year would be deemed EOs; the number of individuals may be reduced for very rare species. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; defined this small to aid in conservation planning. Sites more than 10 kilometers apart may be joined as one occurrence if research shows that predominantly the same individuals are using both sites.
Date: 07Mar2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23May1988
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G., MINOR REVISIONS BY S. CANNINGS

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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