Warea amplexifolia - (Nutt.) Nutt.
Wide-leaf Warea
Other English Common Names: Wideleaf Pinelandcress
Other Common Names: wideleaf pinelandcress
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Warea amplexifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. (TSN 23435)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137486
Element Code: PDBRA2S010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
Image 10448

© Alfred R. Schotz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Warea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Warea amplexifolia
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species, one of four in genus. May be a primitive member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr2018
Global Status Last Changed: 29May1986
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: There are few known occurrences and very little habitat remaining. Restricted to sandhill, a habitat that has been highly fragmented and degraded but also requires frequent fire (1-3 year fire return interval) to maintain the open habitat in which Warea amplexifolia thrives. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory's database contains 14 extant occurrence records, from Lake, Polk, Osceola, and Orange counties, Florida. Four Element Occurrences are protected on Conservation Lands. Nine Element Occurrences are on private property but extant habitat is evident based on aerial photography. Existing populations are threatened by development pressures for citrus and housing and by fire suppression.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (26Apr1987)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: 1,099 square km calculated from GeoCAT. Endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida in Lake, Orange, and Polk counties.

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: 28, 4 square km grid cells calculated from GeoCAT.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twenty-four mapped occurrences, but ten are ranked either X, X?, or F.

Population Size Comments: At least 10,000 based on 8,793 counted at Seminole State Forest, Warea Tract in 2016 and 2,600 counted at Oklawaha North and South in 2015.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: 3 occurrences ranked A or B.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat destruction for housing and citrus development. Most populations are small and are surrounded by development. Invasive species and fore suppression are serious threats to protected populations.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 50-80%
Short-term Trend Comments: Twenty-four mapped occurrences, but 10 are ranked either X, X?, or F.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-90%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Annual; therefore is vulnerable to disturbance.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Restricted to sandhill, a habitat that has been highly fragmented and degraded but also requires frequent fire (1-3 year fire return interval) to maintain the open habitat that Warea thrives in.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: 1,099 square km calculated from GeoCAT. Endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida in Lake, Orange, and Polk counties.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Lake (12069), Marion (12083), Orange (12095)*, Osceola (12097), Polk (12105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oklawaha (03080102)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Peace (03100101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An annual herb, with slender, usually branching, stems 30-100 cm tall from a taproot. Leaves to 5 cm long, alternate, pale green, waxy, slightly fleshy, heart-shaped, clasping, the stem, with rounded tips and entire margins. Flowers about 1.25 cm wide, pink to purple, with 4 paddle-shaped petals and 6 long stamens in showy clusters at the top of the stems. Fruit up to 7 cm long, in clusters of narrow, down-curving pods that split lengthwise.
General Description: An erect herb growing to a height of about 0.8 m. (3 ft.), with slender branch stems arising from an elongate tap root. The leaves are alternately arranged along the stem and are generally heart-shaped, 8-30 mm long and 4-20 mm wide, with conspicuous basal lobes which clasp the stem. The flowers are showy and are borne in small, rounded, pufflike clusters at the ends of the branches. Each flower has 4 pale purple petals with a rounded upper portion, an elongated stalk-like lower portion, and 6 stamens which protrude above the petals. The fruit is a dry, thin, curved pod, 30-75 mm long (Paradiso, 1987).
Technical Description: Smooth, taprooted annual. Stems mostly 3-10 dm. long, erect, terete, the lower part brownish with shallow cracks, upwardly becoming greenish, shallowly grooved, branching from the middle, the branches spreading, then arching upward, or unbranched. Leaves alternate, the lowest absent by flowering time, the largest lowest, all rather closely spaced, ovate or elliptic, mostly 2-3 cm. long (progressively smaller and more distant upward on the stem and branches), acute, entire, the bases deeply auriculate-clasping. Inflorescence racemes rather short and broad, terminal to main stem and branches, the flowers symmetrical, close-set, spreading on slender stalks 1.0-1.5 cm. long. Flower sepals 4, linear-spatulate, 5-6 mm. long, erect in bud, later reflexed, greenish with lavender tints. Petals 4, 8-10 mm. long, spreading-ascending, lavender-rose, the broadly obovate blades 3.0-3.5 mm. long on slender claws with papillate bases. Stamens 6, erect or ascending, the slender lavender filament projecting the linear, curved anthers well beyond the petals. Ovary erect, linear, on a stalk fully half as the filaments. Fruit linear, on spreading stalks, usually curved, 3-7.5 cm. long, laterally flattened (Kral in Robinson, 1980; Paradiso, 1987).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Wawrea amplexifolia is distinguished from W. sessilifolia by its conspicuously heart-shaped leaves, lighter purple flowers, and the petal claws are not as roughened basally. The two do not overlap at all in range (Kral in Robinson, 1980). W. amplexifolia is easily separated from W. carteri and W. cuneifolia by its stalkless and auriculate-based leaves (Paradiso, 1987).
Duration: ANNUAL
Reproduction Comments: Reproduction is exclusively sexual, by the production of seeds which are probably released from the pods by wind action. Flowering occurs from mid-August to early October, and fruiting occurs from late September to mid-November. The population overwinters as seeds (Paradiso, 1987).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Limited to sunny openings with exposed sand in longleaf pine/turkey oak sandhills and sand pine-scrub oak scrub.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cooper, S.T., & C. Sahley, rev. D. White (1991), rev. A. Jenkins (2018)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18Feb1992

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Hall, D.W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. 431 pp.

  • Hall, David W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the coastal plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, FL. pp. 431.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Robinson, A.F., Jr., ed. 1980b. Endangered and threatened species of the southeastern United States including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. U.S. Forest Service General Rept. SA-GA 7.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1987. Endangered status for Warea amplexifolia (wide-leaf warea). Federal Register 52(82): 15501-15505.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2017. Wide-leaf Warea (Warea amplexifolia) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.  USFWS, Southeast Region. North Florida Ecological Services Office. Jacksonville, FL.

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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