Vittaria lineata - (L.) Sm.
Appalachian Gametophyte
Other English Common Names: Dixie Shoestring Fern
Other Common Names: shoestring fern
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. (TSN 17731)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136080
Element Code: PPVIT04030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Ferns and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Filicinophyta Filicopsida Filicales Vittariaceae Vittaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Vittaria lineata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Apr1984
Global Status Last Changed: 16Apr1984
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: It is widespread in the American continents.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNR), Georgia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Florida, Georgia, U.S.A.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America. In the U.S., Vittaria lineata is known outside of Florida only in Camden County, in southeastern Georgia (FNAEC, 1993).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Florida, Georgia, U.S.A.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America. In the U.S., Vittaria lineata is known outside of Florida only in Camden County, in southeastern Georgia (FNAEC, 1993).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL, GA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Camden (13039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: The genus Vittaria is primarily one of tropical ferns in which the gametophytes can produce extensive colonies without producing sporophytes. Vittaria is a branching, ribbon-like gametophyte, with diffuse rhizoids and linear-shaped gemmae only one cell wide (Radford et al., 1968).
Technical Description: The following description is from Farrar (1978): As in most ferns, spores of Vittaria initially produce a short filament and subsequently a cell plate. Later development differs from most ferns in that a heart shape with a recessed apical notch meristem is not formed, but instead a discontinuous marginal meristem is produced. As the plants become older, existing meristems frequently dichotomize and new meristems arise from older portions. In this manner, gametophytes become much branched and sometimes almost amorphous. Generally, however, a pattern is developed in which there is a dominant basal branch from which aerial branches grow and terminate in the production of gemmae. Along the basal branch, archegonia are produced on short marginal lobes. The antheridia are produced mostly on very small plants and especially on germinating gemmae. Except for the archaegonia-bearing lobes where a second cell layer develops, the gametophytes remain only one cell thick.

The Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993) describes Vittaria lineata as follows: Plants epiphytic. Stems short-creeping, branched, densely scaly; scales brown, apex attenuate, filiform. Leaves 10-60 cm x 1-3 mm, petioles indistinct. Sporangia protected by soral paraphyses that lack dilated terminal cells. Spores monolete. Gametophytes much branched. Gemmae tapering at ends, end cells not swollen; body cells 4-16, rhizoid primordia on each end cell, often on 1-2 medial cells. 2n = 120.

Diagnostic Characteristics: Vittaria lineata is the only species with known sporophyte generation in North America (FNAEC, 1993).
Ecology Comments: Gametophytes commonly form the dominant cover on moist logs and tree trunks, especiallY the bases of Sabal Palmetto palms, withing the range of the sporophyte. Such populations usually contain numerous small, sexually produced sporophytes (FNAEC, 1993).
Habitat Comments: This species is found in moist woods and especially along streams at elevations of 0-100 m, most commonly on trunks of palms (Sabal palmetto) (FNAEC, 1993).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Apr1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): MARTINEZ, M., TNC-HQ.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Farrar, D.R. 1978. Problems in the identity and origin of the Appalachian Vittaria gametophyte, a sporophyteless fern of the eastern United states. Amer. J. Bot. 65(1):1-12.

  • Farrar, D.R., and J.T. Mickel. 1991. Vittaria appalachiana: a name for the "Appalachian Gametophyte". American Fern J. 81(3): 69-75.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 1. Introduction. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Pinson, Jerald B., Sally M. Chambers and Emily B. Sessa.  2017.  Vittaria graminifolia (Pteridaceae) and Didymoglossum petersii (Hymophyllaceae) in Broxton Rocks, GA.  American Fern Journal 107(4):257-264.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

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