Vitis rupestris - Scheele
Rock Grape
Other English Common Names: Sand Grape
Other Common Names: sand grape
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Vitis rupestris Scheele (TSN 28625)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154710
Element Code: PDVIT040J0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grape Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rhamnales Vitaceae Vitis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Vitis rupestris
Taxonomic Comments: Distinctive upright grape, not vining, yet easily confused with unusual individuals of some other species. Also, occasionally hybridizes with other co-occurring species of native grapes (as in the Potomac River Gorge).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Feb2001
Global Status Last Changed: 26Feb2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Vitis rupestris occurs sporadically across a fairly broad range in the eastern United States. It is apparently relatively secure in the Ozark region of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, with dozens of occurrences, but it is rare elsewhere in its extensive range. Since it spreads vegetatively as a clonal shrub (not as a vine), sizable stands may have only one or a few genotypes represented. The low rate of seed production and the narrow habitat requirements makes establishment of new occurrences of this species difficult. Hybridization with other native grapes is also degrading this species' gene pool.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (S3), California (SNA), District of Columbia (S1), Illinois (S2?), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S2), Maryland (S1), Missouri (S3S4), Oklahoma (S2), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S1), Texas (S1), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Vitis rupestris occurs spottily from Pennsylvania and Maryland west to Illinois and Missouri, and south to North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas. It is also known as a rare escape from cultivation in California (cf. Best et al., 1996), where it is used as rootstock for cultivated grapes. Reports from Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Ohio are based on old literature reports not maintained in more recent floras. The Ohio report appears to be without basis (A. Cusick, pers. comm. to L. Morse, 26Feb01).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Apparently secure in the Ozark region of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas. Historical in Tennessee. Occurs sporadically through much of its range. Post-1970 records with good locational information: 1 EO in IN; 2 in KY; 1 in MD; 2 in PA; 2 in VA; 1 in DC.

Population Size Comments: Locally common in Missouri, where known from most counties in the Ozark region (Kutz, 1997). Abundance is difficult to estimate, however, because V. rupestris grows in thickets and reproduces vegetatively. Both physical and genetic individuals are difficult to tell apart. This species has been recently found in Pennsylvania, where it was considered extirpated at one time. Vitis rupestris is considered common only in Missouri. In Arkansas it is considered uncommon with occurrences scattered throughout the state. However, many of these records appear to be historic (Sundell 1996).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The principal threat to Vitis rupestris is a change in the hydrology of its riverbank habitats, away from the natural flooding regime and periodic scouring of the riverbank. This species is threatened by successional invasion by other plants. Its habitat may be threatened by recreational use and by pollution or siltation.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: This species is apparently declining throughout much of its range (Moore, M., 1996), although probably stable in the Ozarks (Tim Smith, MoHP, pers. comm. 2001).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Long-persistent so long as natural flood regime maintained; lost to succession otherwise.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Vitis rupestris occurs spottily from Pennsylvania and Maryland west to Illinois and Missouri, and south to North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas. It is also known as a rare escape from cultivation in California (cf. Best et al., 1996), where it is used as rootstock for cultivated grapes. Reports from Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Ohio are based on old literature reports not maintained in more recent floras. The Ohio report appears to be without basis (A. Cusick, pers. comm. to L. Morse, 26Feb01).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CAexotic, DC, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, OK, PA, TN, TX, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Baxter (05005), Boone (05009), Marion (05089), Montgomery (05097), Pope (05115), Scott (05127), Sharp (05135), Stone (05137), Yell (05149)
IN Crawford (18025), Harrison (18061)
KY Cumberland (21057), Laurel (21125), McCreary (21147), Monroe (21171), Pulaski (21199), Wayne (21231)
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Baltimore County (24005)*, Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033)*
OK Comanche (40031), McCurtain (40089)
PA Fayette (42051), Lancaster (42071)*, Somerset (42111)
TN Davidson (47037)*, Hickman (47081), Houston (47083)*, Maury (47119), Montgomery (47125), Warren (47177), White (47185), Wilson (47189)
TX Nolan (48353)*, Taylor (48441)*, Tom Green (48451)*, Val Verde (48465)
VA Alleghany (51005), Arlington (51013)*, Fairfax (51059), Loudoun (51107), Rockbridge (51163), Stafford (51179)*
WV Fayette (54019), Greenbrier (54025), Monroe (54063)*, Ohio (54069)*, Preston (54077), Raleigh (54081), Summers (54089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+*, Severn (02060004)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower Potomac (02070011)+*, Upper James (02080201)+, Maury (02080202)+
05 Cheat (05020004)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+*, Middle New (05050002)+, Greenbrier (05050003)+, Lower New (05050004)+, Rockcastle (05130102)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+, Caney (05130108)+, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+*, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
06 Lower Duck (06040003)+
08 Ouachita Headwaters (08040101)+
11 Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, Middle White (11010004)+, Buffalo (11010005)+, Spring (11010010)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Fourche La Fave (11110206)+, West Cache (11130203)+, Upper Little (11140107)+
12 Upper Clear Fork Brazos (12060102)+*, Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101)+*, South Concho (12090102)+*
13 Dry Devils (13040303)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large perennial, bushy or shrub-like grape, sometimes sprawls over large areas but rarely climbs or has tendrils. Has alternate, short, wide, and toothed leaves. Fruits are black. Important as a grafting stock in commercial grape production.
General Description: Bushy shrub-like grape, slightly climbing with few tendrils, alternate, short, wide, and toothed leaves. Berries are black.
Technical Description: Bushy shrub to 2 m high, sometimes slightly climbing; tendrils forked, few, and small; young shoots leafy to end; lenticels absent or inconspicuous; bark persistent for the first several years; pith brown, interrupted by nodal diaphragms (<1 mm wide); leaves thickish, firm, broader than long, margin coarsely toothed, typically reniform, conduplicatley folded particularly when young, often 3-shouldered, rarely shallowly 3-lobed, base typically truncate to broadly cordate, apices acute to short acuminate; stipules 3-6.5 mm long; petioles half as long as the leaf blade; fruit cluster small, panicles 4-7 cm long, usually globose in general outline, typically less than 25 berries per cluster, occasionally less than 12; berries black, somewhat flattened, 1 cm in diameter, 3 or 4 seeded; seeds light brown, ovoid (Strausbaugh & Core, 1977; Moore, 1991). Fruits are noted to be apparent from April to June.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Tendrils lacking or only from the uppermost nodes; leaves pubescent underneath with short erect hairs not long cobweb-like hairs; pith interrupted by a diaphragm at each node.
Reproduction Comments: Reproduction is mainly vegetative via rooting stems. Plants do flower and produce fruit. Germination rates are improved with chilling at 4C for 4 weeks (Takeno, et al., 1983).
Ecology Comments: IN -- This species occurs in chert and limestone gravel streambeds. The elevation of one site was noted as 430 ft. Associated plants include Andropogon gerardii, Apocynum, Baptisia australis, Cornus obliqua, and Salix caroliniana (IN Heritage files, 1995).

KY -- Occurrences of this species are among limestone cobble bars and scoured boulder areas (KY Heritage Files, 1995).

MO -- In this state occurrences of Vitis rupestris are along cherty stream beds, rocky banks, and gravel bars. These sites are alternately xeric and inundated (Steyermark,1993).

PA -- Vitis rupestris occurs growing along river banks. These areas are reached by high water. One extirpated site was near a railroad with saturated to moist soils, scouring, partial light, and at an elevation 150 ft. (PA Heritage Files, 1995; Isaac, J., 1996).

Habitat Comments: Calcareous or gravelly banks, river bottoms, stream beds, washes, and scoured boulders and cobbles. It also occurs along the edges of limestone glades and barrens. Occurring at, but not limited to, 0-3% slope, open or partial light, saturated to moist soil. One site was noted at an elevation of 150 ft. Associated plant species include Andropogon gerardi, Apocynum sp., Baptisia australis, Cornus obliqua, Platanus occidentalis, Salix caroliniana, and Ulmus alata, (Morano & Walker, 1995).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Maintain the hydrology of habitats for this species, especially the periodic riverbank cycle of flooding and scouring. Also, invasive and exotic plant species should be removed from the habitat.
Species Impacts: No impacts of this element on other species were identified.
Restoration Potential: Unknown.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Preserve design should include adequate buffer area surrounding occurrences to allow for management activities. These include habitat where stream scouring can occur and will not be altered by changes in hydrology (dams) in the foreseeable future. Contact Water Resource Agencies to acknowledge the presence of this element in their district as a protection against channelization or impoundment of the site. A 100 ft riparian buffer zone is also suggested (Concannon, J., 1996).
Management Requirements: None currently identified.
Monitoring Requirements: No monitoring requirements were identified.

Management Programs: No management programs were identified.
Monitoring Programs: Sites that have not been visited within the last 5 years should be revisited.
Management Research Programs: Seeds are viable and can be germinated if placed in sand and held near freezing for one month (Moore, M., 1996).
Management Research Needs: None currently identified.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Aug2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO (1995), rev. D. Walton (W.Va.HP, 1996), L. Morse (1998, 2000, 2001)
Management Information Edition Date: 19Jul1996
Management Information Edition Author: WALTON, D. WEST VIRGINIA HERITAGE PROGRAM, ELKINS, WV 26241-0067; PHONE: (304)637-0245

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Best, C., J.T. Howell, W. Knight, I. Knight, and M. Wells. 1996. A flora of Sonoma County: Manual of the flowering plants and ferns of Sonoma County, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 347 pp.

  • Comeaux, B.L. 1984. Taxonomic studies on certain native grapes of eastern United States. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Duncan, W.H. 1975. Sida 3: 1-76.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiv + 603 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hyatt, P.E. 1993. A Survey of the Vascular Flora of Baxter County, Arkansas. Castanea 58(2): 115-140.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lebrun, L. 1985. Selection in vitro for NaCl-tolerance in Vitis rupestris Scheele. Annals of Botany 56:733-739.

  • MOORE, M.O. 1991. CLASSIFICATION AND SYSTEMATICS OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN VITIS L. (VITACEAE) NORTH OF MEXICO. SIDA 14(3):339-367.

  • Moore, M. O. 1991. Classification and systematics of eastern North American Vitis L. (Vitaceae) north of Mexico. Sida 14(3): 339-367.

  • Moore, M.O. 1989. Letter of April 10 to Dr. Bert Pittman.

  • Morano, L.D., and M.A. Walker. 1995. Soil and plant communities associated with three Vitis species. Am. Midl. Nat. 134: 254-263.

  • Oakes, H.N. 1932. A brief sketch of the life and works of Augustin Gattinger. Cullum & Ghertner Co., Nashville, TN.

  • Pavek, D. 1997. Electronic mail from Diane Pavek, NRS to Virginia Crouch, DCNHP re: vitis rupestris.

  • Smith, E.B. 1988b. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Second edition. Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville. 489 pp.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

  • Takeno, K., M. Koshioka, R.P. Pharis, K. Rajasekaran, and M.G. Mullins. 1983. Endogenous Gibberellin-like substances in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rupestris) in relation to embryogenesis and the chilling requirement for subsequent development of mature embryos. Plant Physiol. 73: 803-808.

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